US Air Force designations: C-130, AC-130, DC-130, EC-130, HC-130, JC-130, LC-130, MC-130, NC-130, RC-130 and WC-130
US Navy designations: C-130, DC-130, EC-130 and LC-130
US Marine Corps designation: KC-130
US Coast Guard designation: HC-130
Canadian Forces designation: CC-130
RAF designations: Hercules C. Mk 1K, C. Mk 1P, W. Mk 2 and C. Mk 3P
Spanish designations: T.10, TK.10 and TL.10
Swedish designation: Tp 84
Export designations: C-130H, C-130H-30, KC-130H, C-130H-MP and VC-130H

TYPE: Tactical transport and multi-mission aircraft.

PROGRAMME: US Air Force specification issued 1951, first production contract for C-130A to Lockheed September 1952; two prototypes 231 C-130As, 230 C-130Bs and 491 C-130Es manufactured. For later military versions, see below. Over 1,900 Hercules of all types produced by early 1991.

VARIANTS: C-130H: Deliveries started March 1965 to Royal New Zealand Air Force; in service with 50 countries. Features include updated avionics, improved wing, new corrosion protection, and Allison T56-A-15 engines flat rated at 3,362 kW (4,508 shp). Can deliver up to 22,680 kg (50,000 lb) by low altitude parachute extraction system (LAPES) or up to 11,340 kg (25,000 lb) by hook extraction and retardation on ground by Datron arrester cable system.
C-130H-MP: Maritime patrol version; one delivered to Indonesian Air Force and three to Royal Malaysian Air Force. Max T-O weight 70,310 kg (155,000 lb), max payload 18,630 kg (41,074 lb), and T56-A-15 engines; search time 2 h 30 min at 1,525 m (5,000 ft) at 1,800 nm (3,333 km; 2,070 miles) radius or 16 h 50 min at 200 nm (370 km; 230 miles) radius. Optional and standard search features include sea search radar, observer seats and windows, INS/Omega navigation, crew rest and galley slide-in module, flare launcher, loudspeaker, rescue kit airdrop platform, side-looking radar, passive microwave imager, low light TV, infra-red scanner, camera with data annotation and ramp equipment pallet with observer station.
C-130H-30: Stretched version similar to RAF Hercules C. Mk 3 (see C-130K). Convertible to 90-passenger transport with 15-seat pallets.
AC-130H Spectre: Gunship version with sideways-firing 105 mm recoilless gun, 40 mm cannon and two 20 mm Vulcan guns; infra-red and low light TV sensors, and side-looking head-up display for aiming at night while circling target; in-flight refuelling. Conversion by Lockheed Aircraft Service Co. New fire control computers and navigation and sensors under Special Operations/Forces Improvements (SOFI) being installed before transfer to 711th SOS, AFRes. Flight testing began September 1989; first upgrade completed mid-1990; last of current 10 due 1992. In service with 16th Special Operations Squadron at Hurlburt Field, Florida.
EC-130H Compass Call: Works with ground-based C³CM to jam enemy command, control and communications. Operated by 41st Electronic Combat Squadron at Davis Monthan AFB, Arizona, and 43rd Electronic Combat Squadron at Sembach, Germany. (Eight earlier EC-130Es of 7th ECCS being updated by UNISYS to ABCCC III standard in $34 million programme, 1990.)
HC-130H: Extended range USAF Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Service aircraft for aerial recovery of personnel or equipment and other duties; 43 delivered from October 1964; update announced Spring 1987 includes self-contained navigation, night vision goggles cockpit and new communications equipment; applied to 31 aircraft; 21 of these modified for in-flight refuelling; US Coast Guard ordered 35, final 10 as HC-130H-7 with T56A-7B power plants. Further three HC-130H(N)s funded FYs 1988-90 for 210th ARS, USAF, in Alaska, delivered from 28 November 1990.
JC-130H: Four US Air Force HC-130Hs equipped to recover re-entering space capsules.
DC-130H: Two US Air Force HC-130Hs modified for drone control.
KC-130H: Probe-drogue tanker similar to KC-130R; exported to Argentina (two), Brazil (two), Israel (two), Morocco (two), Saudi Arabia (eight), Spain (five) and Singapore (one).
LC-130H: Similar to LC-130R (which see); four acquired by 139th TAS, US Air Force Reserve.
MC-130H Combat Talon II: Conversion of new-build C-130H for day/night infiltration and exfiltration, resupply of Special Operations Forces, psychological warfare and aerial reconnaissance; terrain-following radar; five-man crew; 25 (including YMC-130H prototype) funded in FYs 1983-90; first flight by E-Systems (see below) at Greenville Spring 1988; 19-month flight testing began at Edwards AFB September 1988; MC-130Hs replaced MC-130Es with 8th SOS at Hurlburt Field from 1991.
Equipment includes Emerson Electric AN/APQ-170 precision ground mapping/weather/terrain following and avoidance radar in enlarged radome, inertial navigation, automatic computed air release point, high-speed low level release system, ground acquisition receiver/interrogator, Texas Instruments AN/AAQ-15 infra-red detection system, eight multi-function displavs, secure voice UHF/VHF-FM radios, retractable FLIR pod, angle of attack probe, AN/ALQ-8 ECM pod under each wing, and in-flight refuelling. Defensive equipment includes Litton AN/ALR-69 radar warning receiver, ITT AN/ALQ-172 detector jammer, Watkins Johnson WJ-1840 signal detector, Cincinnati Electronics AN/AAR-44 launch warning receiver, Northrop QRC-8402 IR jammer and chaff/flare dispensers. IBM Federal Systems Division is prime contractor for systems integration, with E-Systems as subcontractor for avionics installation and modification.
RC-130H: Unofficial designation for two Moroccan aircraft fitted with SLAR by Flight Systems Inc.
VC-130H: VIP transport.
C-130J: Advanced Hercules proposed in 1989 to replace US Air Force C-130Es from 1994; Series IV version of T56 allows deletion of external tanks without loss of range; two-crew flight deck with five liquid crystal displays and two fold-down HUDs; carbon brakes with improved anti-skid. Flight-deck retrofit offered to USAF in competition with two-crew conversions tendered by other avionics manufacturers.
C-130K: RAF version of C-130H; much of avionics and instrumentation made in UK; 66 delivered as Hercules C. Mk 1 beginning September 1966; one modified by Marshall of Cambridge for RAF Meteorological Research Flight as Hercules W. Mk 2. Thirty lengthened by 4.57 m (15 ft), equivalent to commercial L-100-30, and redesignated Hercules C. Mk 3, capacity increased from five to seven pallets; three Land Rovers and two trailers to four of each, from 92 to 128 troops, from 64 to 92 fully equipped paratroops and from 74 stretcher patients to 94; first aircraft modified at Marietta, remaining 29 by Marshall of Cambridge (UK).
HC-130N: US Air Force search and rescue version of C-130H for recovery of aircrew and space capsules; 15 delivered; advanced direction finding equipment.
HC-130P: C-130H modified for refuelling helicopters in flight and recovering parachute-borne payloads; 20 built for USAF. HC-130N/Ps to be upgraded for refuelling operations in hostile airspace.
EC-130Q: Similar to earlier EC-130G, but with improved equipment and crew accommodation for TACAMO command communication with submarines; 18 built; HF and VLF SIMOP (simultaneous operation). Being replaced by Boeing E-6A.
TC-130Q: Surplus EC-130Q with trailing wire aerial removed to permit normal cargo loading via rear doors; wingtip pods retained; first (159348) noted 1990.
KC-130R: Probe-drogue tanker of C-130H; 14 delivered to US Marine Corps VMGR-252 and 352; changes from KC-130F include 3,362 kW (4,508 shp) engines, higher T-O and landing weights, external fuel tanks for additional 10,296 litres (2,720 US gallons; 2,265 Imp gallons) fuel, and removable 13,627 litre (3,600 US gallon; 2,997 Imp gallon) fuel tank in cargo hold (all fuel can be used to increase tanker's range); single-point refuelling of normal and additional tanks from existing filler; operating weight empty 36,279 kg (79,981 lb); max T-O weight 79,378 kg (175,000 lb); can off-load up to 20,865 kg (46,000 lb) of fuel, equivalent to 26,790 litres (7,077 US gallons; 5,893 Imp gallons), at radius of 1,000 nm (1,850 km; 1,150 miles); maximum off-load capability 31,750 kg (70,000 lb), equivalent to 40,765 litres (10,769 US gallons; 8,967 Imp gallons).
LC-130R: C-130H with wheel-ski landing gear for US Navy Squadron VXE-6 in Antarctic.
KC-130T: Tanker for US Marine Corps (Reserve), able to refuel helicopters and fighters; eight delivered to Marine Aerial Refueller Transport Squadron 234 (VMGR-234), starting November 1983; eight advanced KC-130Ts delivered to VMGR-452. Similar to KC-130R, but with updated avionics including INS, Omega and Tacan, new autopilot and flight director and solid-state search radar; KC-130Ts delivered in 1984 had Bendix AN/APS-133 colour radar, flush antennae and orthopaedically designed crew seats.
AC-130U Spectre: New gunship version of C-130H.

CUSTOMERS (military C-130H variants only): Abu Dhabi (six), Algeria (10 and 10 H-30/L-100-30s), Argentina (five plus two KC- and one L-100-30), Australia (12), Belgium (12), Bolivia (two plus one L-100-30), Brazil (six plus two KC-), Cameroon (two plus one H-30), Canada (12), Chad (two), Chile (two), Colombia (two), Denmark (three), Dubai (one H-30, one L-100-30), Ecuador (three plus one L-100-30), Egypt (22 plus one VC- and three H-30s), France (three plus nine H-30s), Gabon (one plus one L-100-20 and two L-100-30s), Greece (12), Indonesia (three plus seven H-30s, one H-MP and one L-100-30), Iran (43), Israel (10 plus two KC-), Italy (14), Japan (15), Jordan (four), South Korea (three plus four H-30s), Kuwait (two L-100-20, two L-100-30), Libya (16, of which eight stored in US), Malaysia (six plus three H-MPs), Morocco (15 plus two KC- and two RC-), New Zealand (five), Niger (two), Nigeria (six H-30), Norway (six), Oman (three), Peru (eight L-100-20s), Philippines (three plus four L-100s), Portugal (five plus one H-30 on order), Saudi Arabia (21 plus eight KC- and two VC- [l0 plus seven KC- on order]), Singapore (six), Spain (seven plus five KC- and one H-30), Sudan (six), Sweden (six), Taiwan (12), Thailand (three plus three H-30 and two on order), Tunisia (two), United Kingdom (66 C-130K), Venezuela (eight), Yemen (two), Yugoslavia (two plus one H-30), Zaire (seven).
Hercules in US service (including FY 1990 purchases and aircraft under conversion) at January 1991 were 12 C-130A, 10 AC-130A, five DC-130A, one NC-130A, 89 C-130B, 382 C-130E, 15 EC-130E, 13 MC-130E, seven WC-130E, 197 C-130H, 10 AC-130H, 12 AC-130U, 15 EC-130H, 12 HC-130H, three HC-130H(N), 15 HC-130N, 29 HC-130P, four LC-130H, one 24 MC-130H, one NC-130H, and six WC-130H with USAF; seven C-130F, 40 KC-130F, three LC-130F, three EC-130G, 15 EC-130Q, 14 KC-130R, six LC-130R and 16 KC-130T with USN/USMC; and 31 HC-130H with USCG.

COSTS: C-130H is $31.5 million (1988) flyaway; $48 million (1987) programme unit cost for AC-130H.

DESIGN FEATURES: Can deliver loads and parachutists over lowered rear ramp and parachutists through side doors; removable external fuel tanks outboard of engines are standard fittings; cargo hold pressurised. Wing section NACA 64A318 at root and NACA 64A412 at tip; dihedral 2° 30'; incidence 3° at root, 0° at tip. Leading-edges of wing, tailplane and fin anti-iced by engine bleed air.

FLYING CONTROLS: All control surfaces boosted by dual hydraulic units; trim tabs on ailerons, both elevators and rudder; elevator tabs have AC main supply and DC standby; Lockheed-Fowler trailing-edge flaps; strake under each tailplane root reduces cruise drag.

STRUCTURE: All-metal two-spar wing with integrally stiffened taper-machined skin panels up to 14.63 m (48 ft 0 in) long. Kevlar under-tailplane strakes.

LANDING GEAR: Hydrauhcally retractable tricycle type. Each main unit has two wheels in tandem, retracting into fairings built on to the sides of the fuselage. Nose unit has twin wheels and is steerable ±60°. Oleo shock absorbers. Mainwheel tyres size 56 x 20-20, pressure 6.62 bars (96 lb/sq in). Nosewheel tyres size 39 x 13-16, pressure 4.14 bars (60 lb/sq in). Goodyear aircooled multiple disc hydraulic brakes with anti-skid units. Retractable combination wheel-skis available.

POWER PLANT: Four 3,362 kW (4,508 shp) Allison T56-A-15 turboprops, each driving a Hamilton Standard type 54H60 four-blade constant-speed fully feathering reversible-pitch propeller. Fuel in six integral tanks in wings, with total capacity of 26,344 litres (6,960 US gallons; 5,795 Imp gallons) and two optional underwing pylon tanks, each with capacity of 5,146 litres (1,360 US gallons; 1,132 Imp gallons). Total fuel capacity 36,636 litres (9,680 US gallons; 8,060 Imp gallons). Single pressure refuelling point in starboard wheel well. Overwing gravity fuelling. Oil capacity 182 litres (48 US gallons; 40 Imp gallons).

ACCOMMODATION: Crew of four on flight deck, comprising pilot, co-pilot, navigator and systems manager (fully performance qualified flight engineer on USAF aircraft). Provision for fifth man to supervise loading. Sleeping quarters for relief crew, and galley. Flight deck and main cabin pressurised and air-conditioned. Standard complements for C-130H are as follows: troops (max) 92, paratroops (max) 64, litters 74 and 2 attendants. Corresponding figures for C-130H-30 are 128 troops, 92 paratroops, and 97 litters. As a cargo carrier, loads can include heavy equipment such as a 12,080 kg (26,640 lb) type F.6 refuelling trailer or a 155 mm howitzer and its high-speed tractor, or up to five 463L pallets of freight (seven in C-130H-30). Hydraulically operated main loading door and ramp at rear of cabin. Paratroop door on each side aft of landing gear fairing. Two emergency exit doors standard; two additional doors optional on C-130H-30.

SYSTEMS: Air-conditioning and pressurisation system max pressure differential 0.52 bar (7.5 lb/sq in). Three independent hydraulic systems, utility and booster systems operating at a pressure of 207 bars (3,000 lb/sq in), rated at 65.1 litres (17.2 US gallons; 14.3 Imp gallons)/min for utility and booster systems. 30.3 litres (8.0 US gallons; 6.7 Imp gallons)/min for auxiliary system. Reservoirs are unpressurised. Auxiliary system has handpump for emergencies. Electrical system supplied by four 40kVA AC alternators, plus one 40kVA auxiliary alternator driven by APU in port main landing gear fairing. Four transformer-rectifiers for DC power. Current production aircraft incorporate systems and component design changes for increased reliability. There are differences between the installed components for US government and export versions. Babcock Power Ltd High Volume Mine Layer (HVML) system available as an option, using modular roll-on pallets.

AVIONICS: Dual 628T-2A HF com, dual 618M-3A VHF com, AN/ARC-164 UHF com, AN/AIC-13 PA system, AN/AIC-18 intercom, dual 621A-6A ATC transponders, DF-301 E UHF nav, dual 51RV-4B VHF nav, CMA 771 Omega nav, LTN-72 INS, dual DF-206 ADF, 51Z-4 marker beacon receiver, dual 860E-5 DME, AL-101 radio altimeter, RDR-1F weather radar, dual C-12 compass systems, Mk II GPWS, AP-105V autopilot, and dual FD-109 flight directors.