TYPE: Business jet.
PROGRAMME: Design started September 1992; unveiled at NBAA Convention 20 September 1992. Other members of Bombardier group are involved; Learjet is responsible for project co-ordination, final assembly, testing and certification.
Engine testing began January 1995 with TFE731-20 installed in one nacelle of Learjet 31A testbed. Wing and fuselage of first production aircraft (N45XL) mated at Wichita 4 November 1994; first flight 7 October 1995; second prototype (N452LJ) first flown 6 April 1996, assigned to flutter testing; third aircraft (N453LJ), first flown 24 April 1996, assigned to avionics testing; fourth aircraft assigned to HIRF and lightning-strike testing, engine testing and fuel system operation; fifth aircraft fitted with production interior and assigned to function and reliability testing, including interior noise measurement.
Initial FAA certification granted 22 September 1997 followed by full approval in May 1998; JAA certification achieved 3 July 1998; FAA RVSM approval granted 25 July 2000. First customer delivery (N903HC) 28 July 1998, to Hytrol Conveyor of Jonesboro, Arkansas. First delivery to Europe (N459LJ) 8 September 1998 for Eifel Holdings Ltd of Jersey. More than 210 delivered by December 2002, including 2,000th Learjet, N158PH, to Parker Hannifin Corporation in August 1999. 100th Learjet 45 delivered in October 2000, initially as Bombardier company demonstrator, but destined for a Philippine operator; 200th delivered in April 2002.
CURRENT VERSIONS: Learjet 45: Current version, as described.
Learjet 45XR: Improved version offering enhanced payload/range capability. Announced at Farnborough International Air Show, 21 July 2002 and formally launched at NBAA Convention, Orlando, Florida, 10 September 2002; certification and service entry scheduled for second quarter 2003; not achieved and prototype demonstrated at NBAA Convention, Orlando, 7 to 9 October 2003 (N45XR c/n 232). Features include a 454 kg (1,000 lb) increase in maximum T-O weight; 15.57 kN (3,500 lb st) Honeywell TFE731-20-BR turbofans flat rated at ISA +25°C (104°F) with 0.67 kN (150 lb st) automatic power reserve at T-O; and redesigned cabin interior with seats that are 5 cm (2 in) wider and increase legroom by 15 cm (6 in), increased galley storage, LED lighting system that reduces heat emissions, improved access to systems behind the aft lavatory, and quick (20 min) removal of interior components. Learjet 45XR maximum T-O weight increase and engine upgrade will be retrofittable to existing Learjet 45s.
CUSTOMERS: Total of 234 delivered by September 2003; deliveries began with seven in 1998, followed by 43 in 1999, 71 in 2000, 63 in 2001 and 33 in 2002. Major orders include 40, with 10 options, by JetSolutions for its FlexJets fractional ownership scheme. Recent customer include Singapore Airlines, which ordered two in April 2001, supplementing four aircraft delivered in 1998, Cathay Pacific Airways, which has ordered two for crew training, operated by BAE Systems Flight Training (Australia) Pty Ltd at Adelaide, South Australia, of which the first was delivered on 24 August 2001 with the second scheduled for delivery in 2002, Gold Air International which ordered five 45XR on 5 February 2003, Ocean Air Aero Taxi Ltd of Brazil, which ordered one 45XR on 12 March 2003, Hughes Air Corporation of Calgary, Canada, which took delivery of a 45 on 10 July 2003, and the Irish Government, which ordered one for delivery in December 2003.
COSTS: Learjet 45 US$9.848 million, Learjet 45XR US$10.423 million (both 2002).
DESIGN FEATURES: Generally as Model 31; Learjet 45 designed to combine docile handling characteristics of 31/31A and 60 with exceptional fuel efficiency and good overall performance, and offer increased maintainability and reliability; new larger fuselage, wing and tail unit; increased head and shoulder room; wing carry-through spar recessed beneath floor; latest technology systems. Wing designed with NASA; winglets; sweepback 13° 25' at 25 per cent chord.
Performance enhancement package announced at the Paris Air Show in June 1999 includes maximum T-O weight increased by 136 kg (300 lb); reductions in T-O speeds; improved nosewheel steering and removal of 40 kt (74 km/h; 46 mph) steering system limitation; improved brake-by-wire effectiveness; reconfiguration of flap selector module to permit use of 8° flap setting, instead of 20°, for approach climb in the event of a go-around; improved climb performance with bleed air anti-icing systems operating; and updated Honeywell avionics software.
FLYING CONTROLS: Conventional and manual. Two spoiler/lift dumper panels in each wing. Horn-balanced elevators. Trim tab in rudder; two in each aileron. Flaps.
Further improvements introduced in late 2000 include restyled seats providing greater freedom of movement in the cabin, a 10 to 12 dB reduction in cabin noise levels and improvements in the cabin air distribution system.
STRUCTURE: Unigraphics, CATIA and Computervision digital design systems adopted by Learjet, de Havilland of Canada and Shorts for engineering design. Short Brothers of UK manufactures the fuselage and de Havilland Canada the wings.
LANDING GEAR: Retractable tricycle type; semi-articulated trailing-link main legs retract inward, nose leg forward; twin-wheel main units, size 22x5.75-12 (10 ply) with brake-by-wire anti-skid carbon multidisc brakes; nosewheel has dual-chine tyre, size 18x4.4 (10 ply), with steer-by-wire.
POWER PLANT: Two Honeywell TFE731-20-AR turbofans, each flat rated at 15.57 kN (3,500 lb st) at ISA +16°C (61°F); Dee Howard target-type thrust reversers; digital electronic engine control. Total fuel capacity 3,426 litres (905 US gallons; 754 Imp gallons).
ACCOMMODATION: Two crew and up to nine passengers; eight-passenger cabin typically with PMP fully adjustable swivelling and reclining seats in double club arrangement galley/refreshment centre and storage cabinet at front of cabin; lavatory, doubling as optional ninth seat, at rear; cabin pressurised, maximum differential 0.65 bar (9.43 lb/sq in); clamshell door with integral steps on port side at front of cabin, upper part serves as emergency exit; eight cabin windows per side, one forward of starboard wing leading-edge serving as emergency exit; externally accessible heated and lined baggage compartment, capacity 227 kg (500 lb), in aft fuselage accessed via door on port side beneath engine nacelle.
SYSTEMS: Honeywell air conditioning and pressurisation system, maximum differential 0.65 bar (9.4 lb/sq in), with dual independent digital control system and pneumatic redundancy; dual-zone automatic temperature control. Gaseous oxygen system, pressure 127.6 bar (1,850 lb/sq in). Main and auxiliary back-up hydraulic systems, pressure 207 bar (3,000 lb/sq in). Dual independent anti-icing and de-icing systems comprising bleed air anti-icing on wing and tailplane leading-edges and engine inlets, electric de-icing on pitot-static probes and electric anti-icing and de-fogging on windscreen. Honeywell RE 100 APU optional.
AVIONICS: Honeywell Primus 1000 integrated avionics system.
Comms: Dual Primus II nav/ident radios.
Radar: Primus 660 weather radar standard.
Flight: Dual Primus II nav radios. Primus 1000 digital autopilot/flight director standard; Honeywell traffic-alert and collision-avoidance (TCAS II) optional.
Instrumentation: Primus 1000 with EICAS; dual PFDs and MFDs; flight and navigation information displayed on four 203 x 178 mm (8 x 7 in) EFIS screens; heart of system is IC-600 integrated avionics computer, which combines EFIS and EICAS processor.