TYPE: Business jet.
PROGRAMME: Design started in 1993; initially thought to have had preliminary designation PD1000Y, but now known to have been PD376; briefly identified as Horizon 1000; announced at NBAA Convention, Orlando, Florida, 19 November 1996; full-size cabin mockup exhibited at NBAA Convention, Dallas, Texas, September 1997. First production wing delivered to Wichita from Fuji Heavy Industries in December 1998; first three fuselage sections mated in October 2000 and mated to wing on 16 January 2001. Prototype (c/n RC-1/N4000R) rolled out 17 April 2001; first flight 11 August 2001; second aircraft (c/n RC-2/N802HH) first flew 10 May 2002; public debut (c/n RC-3/N803HH) at NBAA Convention, Orlando, Florida, 10 September 2002; three aircraft had completed 700 hours of test flying by September 2003. FAA certification anticipated in mid-2004 and first customer deliveries scheduled for end of 2004 following a four-aircraft test and certification programme; production target 36 per year.
CUSTOMERS: More than 30 ordered by September 2003, including 27 for Raytheon Travel Air, and one for the Jordan Grand Prix racing team, for delivery in 2004.
COSTS: US$17.8 million (2002).
DESIGN FEATURES: All-new design sharing only slight family resemblance with the BAe 125-derived Hawker 800 and (discontinued) 1000. An 'advisory council' of business jet operators assisted RAC in defining the aircraft, a major requirement being a flat-floor stand-up cabin. Conventional swept-wing, T-tail design with small 'overfin' housing antenna for optional satellite communications system. Wing of supercritical, aft-loaded aerofoil section designed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques; CFD also used to design area-ruled aft fuselage to minimise engine nacelle drag and to reprofile Hawker 1000-based nose section.
Wing sweepback 28° 22' at 25 per cent chord; dihedral 4°; tailplane sweepback 33° 30' at 25 per cent chord.
FLYING CONTROLS: Supercritical section ailerons and elevators, manually operated via pushrods and cables. Pitch trim via electrically actuated, variable incidence tailplane; geared trim tabs on ailerons, fly-by-wire hydraulically powered rudder with boost for asymmetric thrust. Electrically signalled, hydraulically powered, three-segment spoilers on upper surface of each wing augment aileron roll control; outboard and middle panels provide roll and speed brake functions, with maximum deflection 35°; lift dump function provided by all spoilers at 60° deflection. Four-segment, electrically controlled and powered double-slotted flaps, deflections 0, 12, 20 and 35°. Dual controls standard.
STRUCTURE: Fuselage of graphite/epoxy laminate and honeycomb core sandwich; 25 mm (1 in) thick shell is formed by Cincinnati Milacron Viper automatic fibre-placement machines over aluminium mandrel in three sections: nose, centrebody and tailcone, including dorsal fairing and engine pylons mated using aluminium splice plates in a Nova-Tech Engineering Inc fuselage automated splice tool which automatically seals the joints and installs some 1,800 hi-shear fasteners. Wing, designed using CFD, has a supercritical aerofoil and is manufactured by Fuji Heavy Industries at Utsunomiya, Japan, as a complete unit including all systems, integral fuel tanks and leading-edge bleed-air anti-icing, and shipped to Wichita for final assembly. Horizontal stabiliser is of light alloy, two-spar construction with graphite/epoxy composites sandwich skins; vertical stabiliser has three alloy spars and graphite/epoxy composites sandwich skins.
Risk-sharing partners include: Eaton Corporation (hydraulic system); Fokker Elmo BV (wiring harness); Fuji Heavy Industries (wing); Honeywell (avionics integration); Meggit Avionics (fire and overheat protection and standby instrumentation); Messier-Dowty (landing gear); Moog (flight controls and flap actuators); Pratt & Whitney Canada (propulsion system); Smiths Industries (fuel system); and Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation (utility systems management integration).
LANDING GEAR: Retractable tricycle type by Messier-Dowty; landing gear electrically signalled and hydraulically actuated, with free-fall emergency extension system; twin wheels on each unit. Trailing-link suspension on main units, which retract inwards; nosewheel forwards. Steer-by-wire nosewheel, maximum deflection 70°, with disconnect for towing. Mainwheel size 26x6.6 (14 ply), nosewheel size 18x4.4 (10 ply). Hydraulic carbon disc brakes with digital brake-by-wire and electric anti-skid systems.
POWER PLANT: Two pod-mounted Pratt & Whitney Canada PW308A turbofans with FADEC, each flat-rated at 30.7 kN (6,900 lb st) at ISA +20°C. Nordam target-type thrust reversers. Fuel in two integral wing tanks, maximum capacity 8,078 litres (2,134 US gallons; 1,777 Imp gallons). Single point fuelling/defuelling; gravity filler ports in top of each wing.
ACCOMMODATION: Crew of two, plus eight passengers in double 'club four' arrangement on reclining and side tracking seats, each pair having stowable writing table. Observer's seat on flight deck optional. Two closets and a galley immediately aft of flight deck; lavatory and flight accessible (via secondary pressurised bulkhead up to FL410) baggage compartment at rear of cabin with external door on port side aft of wing. Accommodation is air conditioned and pressurised (FL60 equivalent altitude) and includes Airshow entertainment system. Door on port side aft of flight deck; single plug-type emergency exit on starboard side over wing; Four-panel windscreen; seven cabin windows per side.
SYSTEMS: Digitally controlled pressurisation system, maximum pressure differential 0.66 bar (9.64 lb/sq in), maintains an effective cabin altitude of 1,830 m (6,000 ft) to 13,715 m (45,000 ft). Engine bleed air anti-icing for wing leading-edges and engine inlet lips; electromagnetic expulsive de-icing of tailplane, none on fin leading-edge; electrically heated pitot and static masts, AoA and TAT probes; windscreen anti-icing and demisting and cabin window demisting via electrically conductive transparent film embedded between panels. Automatically controlled electrical power generation and distribution system (EPGDS) comprises two high-speed, variable frequency, engine-driven AC generators, one APU-driven AC generator and two 43 Ah lead acid batteries. AC/DC external power receptacles standard. Two independent hydraulic systems, operating pressure 206.85 bar (3,000 lb/sq in), for normal and emergency landing gear operation, braking, thrust reversers, spoilers, rudder, nosewheel steering and emergency electrical generation. Two-bottle oxygen system, total capacity 4,080 litres (144 cu ft), with quick-donning diluter-demand masks for crew and auto-deploy constant flow masks in overhead boxes for passengers. Tailcone-mounted Honeywell AE-36-150(HH) APU approved for in-flight operation from sea level to 10,670 m (35,000 ft) and for main engine starting from sea level to 7,925 m (26,000 ft).
AVIONICS: Honeywell Primus Epic lightweight modular avionics system based on Virtual Backplane Network architecture, which combines the cabinet-based modular capabilities of Honeywell's 777 AIMS system with the aircraft-wide network capabilities of its Primus 2000 system and built-in maintenance recording with portable access terminal. The system has 'point and click' capability via two Cursor Control Devices (CCDs) which include touchpad, numeric control and on-screen 'soft keys'. Voice Command will be a future option for some Epic functions.
The Horizon's avionics system provides functions which Raytheon states have never previously been offered in a super-mid-size business jet, including digital circuit breaker control, automatic refuelling control, and full-authority autothrottle. All avionics boxes are installed in a cabinet behind the co-pilot's seat, in an environmentally controlled, pressurised area with easy access for maintenance.
Comms: Dual VHF comms; single Collins HF-9000 HF with Selcal; dual Mode S Diversity transponders; dual audiophone/interphone/PA systems; airborne telephone.
Radar: Primus 880 colour weather radar.
Flight: Primus Epic AFCS and FMS with integrated performance computer; dual VHF nav VOR/LOC/GS/Markers; dual DME; dual IRU; dual GPS; EGPWS; TCAS II; solid-state FDR and CVR.
Instrumentation: Five 203 x 254 mm (8 x 10 in) colour, active, flat panel LCD screens comprising two PFDs, two MFDs and one EICAS, plus two smaller multifunction control and display units (MCDUs).