US Army designation: C-12J
TYPE: Twin-turboprop airliner.
PROGRAMME: Original Beech 1900 first flew on 3 September 1982; three prototypes followed by 74 1900Cs and 174 wet-wing 1900C-1s by late 1991. Most recent 1900D announced at US Regional Airlines Association meeting 1989; development of 1900C; prototype (converted from 1900C-1 N5584B) first flight 1 March 1990; certification to FAR Pt 23 Amendment 34 received March 1991; full certification with supplements received, and deliveries (to Mesa Airlines) began, November 1991; contract signed February 1997 with Xian Aircraft Company of People's Republic of China for supply to Raytheon of 800 metal-bonded subassemblies for 1900D, to be delivered between 1997 and 2001; 500th Model 1900 delivered in March 1997; 400th Model 1900D (N44640) rolled out 21 March 2000. Beech also offers special mission versions for signals intelligence, maritime patrol and similar duties. Production ended in late 2002.
CURRENT VERSIONS: 1900D: As described.
1900D Executive: Features custom-designed executive interior ranging from twin double-club to corporate shuttle configuration; refreshment bar, entertainment system and flight phones optional.
C-12J: US Air Force ordered six Beech 1900C-1S in 1986, of which four currently assigned to 3rd, 46th and 51st (two) Wings for support, and two with US Army (HQ Europe and 78th Aviation Battalion in Japan). In March 1997, Army received a further Beech 1900D (96-0112) for Chemical and Biological Defense Command at Aberdeen Proving Ground. C-12 designation more properly belongs to King Air.
CUSTOMERS: Total 65 delivered in 1995, 69 in 1996, 42 in 1997, 45 in 1998, 24 in 1999, 54 in 2000, 11 each in 2001 and 2002, and one in the first six months of 2003. Purchasers include the Algerian Air Force, which ordered 12 in 2000 in sigint configuration, equipped with Northrop Grumman Systems radar and FLIR; and Air New Zealand, which ordered 16 in April 2001 for delivery to its regional subsidiary Eagle Airways at the rate of one per months from mid-2001. Last of these, ZK-EAP (c/n UE-439) delivered 29 November 2001 as final new-build Beech 1900, although deliveries continued of earlier 'white tail' aircraft. Total 690 Beech 1900s of all variants (including prototypes) built between 1982 and 2002.
COSTS: US$4.995 million (2001).
DESIGN FEATURES: Flat floor with stand-up headroom; cabin volume increased by 28.5 per cent compared to 1900C: winglets add better hot-and-high performance; tailplane and fin swept; each tailplane carries small fin (tailet) on underside near tip; auxiliary horizontal fixed tail surface (stabilion) each side of rear fuselage improves centre of gravity range; twin ventral strakes improve directional stability and turbulence penetration; small horizontal vortex generator on fuselage ahead of wingroots.
Wing aerofoil NACA 23018 (modified) at root, 23012 (modified) at tip; dihedral 6°; incidence 3° 29' at root, -1° 4' at tip; no sweepback at quarter-chord.
FLYING CONTROLS: Conventional and manual. Automatic cable tensioner in aileron circuit; trim tabs in elevators, rudder and port aileron; primary and secondary controls routed separately to improve protection from possible engine-failure damage; single-slotted trailing-edge flaps in two sections on each wing.
STRUCTURE: Generally of light alloy. Wing has continuous main spar with fail-safe structure riveted and bonded; fuselage pressurised and mainly bonded.
LANDING GEAR: Hydraulically retractable tricycle type; main units retract forward and nose unit rearward; Beech oleo-pneumatic shock-absorber in each unit. Twin Goodyear wheels on each main unit, size 6.50x10, with Goodyear tyres size 22x6.75-10 (10 ply) tubeless, pressure 6.69 bar (97 lb/sq in); Goodyear steerable nosewheel size 6.50x8, with Goodyear tyres size 19x6.75-8 (10 ply) tubeless, pressure 4.14 bar (60 lb/sq in). Nosewheel power steering optional. Goodyear multiple-disc hydraulic brakes. Optional Beech Hydro-Aire anti-skid units, power steering and brake de-icing. Ground turning radius based on wingtip clearance 12.55 m (41 ft 2 in).
POWER PLANT: Two Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-67D turboprops, each flat rated at 954 kW (1,279 shp) and driving a Hartzell four-blade constant-speed fully feathering reversible-pitch composites propeller. Wet wing fuel storage (two integral tanks per wing) with a total capacity of 2,528 litres (668 US gallons; 556 Imp gallons), of which 2,519 litres (665 US gallons; 554 Imp gallons) usable. Refuelling point in each wing leading-edge, inboard of engine nacelle. Oil capacity (total) 29.5 litres (7.8 US gallons; 6.5 Imp gallons).
ACCOMMODATION: Crew of one (FAR Pt 91) or two (FAR Pt 135) on flight deck, with standard accommodation in cabin of commuter version for 19 passengers in single airline-standard seats on each side of centre aisle. Forward carry-on baggage lockers, underseat baggage stowage, rear baggage compartment. Forward door, incorporating airstairs, on port side. Upward-hinged rear cargo door, also on port side. Three emergency exits over wing (two starboard, one port). Accommodation air conditioned, heated, ventilated and pressurised. Ultra Electronics UltraQuiet active noise cancellation system optional. Executive and corporate shuttle options seat between 10 and 18 passengers with options for forward and rear compartments, combination lavatory/passenger seat and two beverage bars at cabin compartment division. Club, double-club and triple club seating optional. Customised interiors to customer's choice, including King Air 350 cockpit seats and passenger/cargo combi interiors. Oxygen system, capacity 4,308 litres (152 cu ft) standard, with outlets for all cabin occupants.
SYSTEMS: Bleed air cabin heating and pressurisation, maximum differential 0.35 bar (5.1 lb/sq in), maintaining sea level cabin environment to 3,350 m (11,000 ft), and 2,745 m (9,000 ft) cabin to 7,620 m (25,000 ft). Air cycle and vapour cycle air conditioning. Hydraulic system, pressure 207 bar (3,000 lb/sq in), for landing gear actuation. 28 V electrical system includes two 300 A engine-driven starter/generators, one 34 Ah Ni/Cd battery and two 400 Hz solid-state invertors supplying 115 V DC and 26 V AC power for avionics and instruments. Constant flow oxygen system of 4,420 litre (156 cu ft) capacity standard. Engine inlet screen anti-ice protection, exhaust heated engine inlet lips, fuel vent heating, electric propeller and windscreen de-icing systems standard. Brake de-icing optional. Pneumatic de-icing boots on wings, tailplane, tailets and stabilions. Self-monitoring continuous detection loop and one-shot fire extinguisher in each engine nacelle.
AVIONICS: Comms: Rockwell Collins Pro Line II digital technology radios; cabin briefer; cockpit voice recorder.
Flight: Dual flight directors; GPWS; provision for TCAS1, GPS and Collins TWR-850 colour weather radar optional.
Instrumentation: Rockwell Collins EFIS-84 four-tube EFIS. Primary display consists of multicolour CRT panels, remote display processor unit and system control units; CRT displays provide conventional electronic attitude director indicator (EADI) and electronic horizontal situation indicator (EHSI) functions.