Grover C. Loening graduated from Columbia 1911, building monoplane flying-boat same year. Worked with Orville Wright and in US Army Signal Corps, then (1915) president of Sturtevant Aeroplane Co. Formed Loening Aeronautical Engineering Corp. December 1917. First product M-8 2-seat monoplane fighter with many advanced features; such high performance Army ordered 5,000, but cancelled at Armistice. Despite biplane prejudice Navy bought 10 M-8-0 followed by 36 M-8-1 and 6 M-8-1S seaplanes. Small numbers followed of PW-2 single-seater for Army, and 2 PA-1s (first US fighters with radial engine), developed by Grumman, Swirbul and Schwendler (see Grumman). OL 2-seat observation biplane amphibian (1923) was classic design which led to 165 additional aircraft for Army and Navy, continued with agreement by Grumman J2F Duck family. Same formula led to civil Wasp (1927) and Air Yacht (1928). Merged with Keystone 1928, producing improved and upgraded Air Yachts to 1931. See also Grover Loening.

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