LOCKHEED

Allan Haines Loughead (pronounced Lockheed) tore around Alma, south of San José, in homebuilt racing car at age 15 in 1904. In same year he studied a glider flown by Prof. James Montgomery of University of Santa Clara and became hooked on aviation. In 1910 found his half-brother Victor had 2 best-selling books in Chicago, Aeroplane Designing and Vehicles of the Air. Allan worked his way via motor race meetings to Chicago where he became mechanic to aviator Jim Plew and, when Plew failed to get airborne in deep snow, flew his Curtiss pusher without instruction! Returned to San Francisco, persuaded full brother Malcolm to join him, and built 3-seat seaplane, called Model G to hide fact it was their first effort. Very successful first flight 15 June 1913, and at Panama-Pacific Exposition in San Francisco 1915 this seaplane carried 600 passengers and earned $4,000. This was more than double their borrowings from friends, with whom they formed Alco Hydro-Aeroplane Co. Accordingly this was liquidated and Loughhead Aircraft Manufacturing Co. incorporated March 1916 at Santa Barbara, to build large F-1 flying-boat (2 x 160-hp Hall-Scott) to carry 3,100-lb payload. Task of laying out hull and stressing wings given to young mechanic John K. Northrop. F-1 was again great success (28 March 1918), often carried 12 passengers, but war was almost over and Navy cancelled planned major order after contract for 2 Curtiss HS-2L. Post-war slump meant no customer for beautiful S-1 sport biplane, and firm suspended operations 1921. Malcolm devised superior hydraulic brake, from which sprang Lockheed Hydraulics, Bendix, Automotive Products and other giants. To help people get pronunciation right Allan had changed name to Lockheed 1918, and in December 1926 he opened Lockheed Aircraft Co. in small workshop at corner of Sycamore and Romaine in Hollywood, enticing Northrop back from Douglas. First result was beautifully streamlined Vega, flown 4 July 1927 from hayfield which became LA International. Hired test pilot Eddie Bellande said, 'You'll sell this airplane like hotcakes'; Lockheed built large new factory at Burbank and delivered 144 Vegas, setting 34 world records. In July 1929 Lockheed was one of 11 companies gathered into Detroit Aircraft by fast-buck financiers. At first Lockheed prospered, with Air Express, Sirius and Orion (6 passengers carried at over 200 mph). But Detroit prohibited any investment or research, and, with obsolescing aircraft, company failed April 1932. Offered for $42,456, company was bought for $40,000 by Robert E. Gross, Harvard man who had formed Viking and helped Stearman. Company was continued unaltered, Gross chairman and treasurer, Carl B. Squier (who had been Detroit’s man appointed to run previous company) as v-p sales and Cyril Chappellet treasurer. Gross hired young MIT engineer. Hall L. Hibbard, to help Stearman decide what to build, with Richard von Hake assistant designer. Rejecting a planned 'metal Orion', they built twin-engined Model 10 Electra (23 February 1934), a vital winner. Tunnel-testing was assigned to University of Michigan, where young Clarence L. 'Kelly' Johnson suggested a modified tail; he joined Lockheed and played increasingly crucial design role. Electra led to high-speed Models 12, 14 and 18, the 14 being turned almost overnight into Hudson for British Air Ministry (2,941) and various US Army versions, and 18 led to Ventura/PBO/Harpoon (3,028 all built at Vega Airplane, wholly-owned subsidiary which also built 2,750 B-17s). Extraordinary XP-38 interceptor (27 January 1939) led to P-38 Lightning (10,037 including 113 by Consolidated-Vultee and F-5 photo versions). XC-69 Constellation (9 January 1943) led to numerous civil and military Constellation and Super Constellation versions (856). XP-80 Shooting Star jet fighter (8 January 1944) led to 1,732 F-80 fighters, 851 F-94 night interceptors and 6,557 T-33 trainers (including 656 Canadair Silver Stars and 210 by Kawasaki). P2V (later P-2) Neptune (17 May 1945) led to 1,181 of many versions. YC-130 Hercules (flown at Burbank 23 August 1954) led to production line at vast Lockheed-Georgia plant at Marietta which had previously built 294 B-47; non-stop production has delivered over 2,050 as of 1993. Lockheed-Georgia also built 285 C-141 StarLifters and 81 C-5A and 50 C-5B Galaxies. L-188 Electra turboprop airliner (6 December 1957) led to 170, plus derived P-3 Orion maritime/ASW aircraft (659 as of 1993, with production being transferred to Marietta). XF-104 Starfighter (4 March 1954) led to 296 early versions for USAF plus 2,282 F-104G variants built in multinational programmes. U-2 (1 August 1955), first of 'Kelly' Johnson's 'black' programmes at secure Skunk Works, led to 104 amazing U-2 and TR-1 aircraft built in 3 groups 1955-89. JetStar (4 September 1957) ran to 204 examples. Numerous lightplanes, helicopters and research aircraft did not support production, and L-1011 TriStar (17 November 1970) stopped at 247. A second giant secure programme at Skunk Works produced A-12 (26 April 1962), 12 research aircraft able to cruise at over Mach 3 at over 80,000 ft, followed by 4 YF-12 interceptors and 32 SR-71 recon aircraft. Burbank (Lockheed-California) built 187 S-3 Viking ASW aircraft 1972-8. Q-Star and derivatives were built by Lockheed Missiles and Space. Total restructure 1977 resulted in parent being renamed Lockheed Corp., HQ moving from Burbank to Calabasas. Four giant groups formed, one being Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Group (LASG) at Marietta, to where P-3 line is being transferred. Latest known giant Skunk Works (changed name to Lockheed Advanced Development Co., LADC) programme was Have Blue research into 'stealth', resulting in XST (December 1977) and production F-117A (18 June 1981), 59 built by July 1990. Even bigger programme led to YF-22 (29 September 1990) Advanced Tactical Fighter, announced as winner (with Pratt & Whitney F119 engine) 23 April 1991. Requirement for 2 YF-22, 11 F-22 prototypes and 648 F-22A Superstars to be assembled by LASG. LASG is member of A-X consortium with Boeing and GD (whose Fort Worth division Lockheed purchased in March 1993). LADC rumoured to have developed secret Aurora strategic recon aircraft. LAC (Lockheed Aeromod Center), Tucson, teamed with Swiss AVTEC on L-1011 rebuilds. Lockheed Corp. merger with Martin Marietta in 1995. See Lockheed Martin.

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