TYPE: Twin-turboprop transport.

PROGRAMME: Requirement for 25-30 seat development of An-28 emerged during 1989 sales tour of India. Development of all-new An-38 approved by Soviet Ministry of Aviation, late 1990. Details announced, and model displayed, at 1991 Paris Air Show; initial batch of six built at production factory, NAPO, Novosibirsk, Russia: one prototype (01001; first flight 23 June 1994, with TPE331 engines), four trials aircraft and one (01002) for static testing at Kiev; certification to AP-25 granted 22 April 1997. In December 1995, Antonov and NAPO formed joint venture company, Siberian Antonov Aircraft, to produce, market and provide after-sales service for the An-38. Indian demonstration tour undertaken in July and August 1997, followed by appearance at Aero India in December 1998 and February 2001.
Production at NAPO was suspended between 2000 and 2003, but in March 2003 an agreement was signed by the plant, Moscow Leasing Company and Volgograd-SpetzAvia for resumption with a batch of five.

CURRENT VERSIONS: An-38-100: With Honeywell TPE331 engines. First and second (01003; exhibited Moscow 1997) flying aircraft to this standard. Trials of international navigation avionics completed March 2000.
An-38-110: Reduced avionics fit in comparison with -100.
An-38-120: Enhanced avionics fit in comparison with -100; equipment includes VOR/DME, Opal-B voice recorder and SPPZ-2000 ground proximity warner. NAPO-Aviation's aircraft to this standard.
An-38-200: With Omsk MKB 'Mars' TVD-20-03 engines. Third and fourth prototypes were planned to this standard when engine development complete; however, minor problems with Aerosila AV-36M propeller delayed programme, but maiden flight achieved (at NAPO) 11 December 2001. Equipment standard as for An-38-120, but with addition of TCAS-2000 traffic collision avoidance system. State Tests were completed on 28 November 2002.
An-38K: Convertible version of An-38-100; large upward-hinging side door at rear on port side; able to carry four LD-3 (KMP-500) or five LD-3K containers (= konteinernyi); cargo handling equipment removable for conversion to 30-passenger transport.
Versions with RKBM TVD-1500 engines said to be under construction in 2000, but none had emerged by mid-2002. All versions can be equipped for aerial photography (An-38F: fotografiya), survey (An-38GF geofizichesky), forest patrol (An-38D: desantnyi), VIP transport, ambulance (An-38S: sanitarnyi; six stretchers, nine seated, with attendant) and fishery/ice patrol duties (An-38LR: ledovoi razvedki). An assault transport, also designated An-38D, capable of carrying 22 paratroops, 26 troops or 3 tonnes of cargo, was revealed to be in the design stage in August 2001; -100 or -200 engine options will be available.

CUSTOMERS: Eight Srs 100s produced by mid-2000; two prototypes (one at Antonov; one at NAPO), one static test airframe and five with airlines (Vostok, three; Alrosa, two); by mid-2003, no further production had been undertaken. Two Vostok aircraft to Malaysia during 2001 for use by Layang Layang Aerospace for tourist flights, cargo transport and aerial photography.
First three (subsequently increased to eight) An-38-100s ordered for Vostok Airlines and received by mid-1995 for one year of intensive trials before passenger certification. Second firm customer in Chukotavia (10; although initial batch is two); letters of intent from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Merninsky, Novosibirsky, Ulyanovsky and Nikolaevsk-na-Amur. In 1999-2000, second prototype was being operated by NAPO-Aviatrans, the airline of the NAPO aircraft factory. In 1998, Siberia Airlines was considering purchase of two. Alrosa-Avia of Zhukovsky has ordered five for diamond mining support, of which first in service by early 2000; second followed in July 2000. Indian Air Force interest expressed in initial six to 10; estimated market for 40 with Indian regional airlines (2001), of which 20 covered by letters of intent. Interest in -200 from Vietnam Airlines, which in 2001 signed lease for NAPO's own -120. First customer for Srs 200 is expected to be Kemerovo Airlines, which required two for delivery in late 2003.
NAPO anticipates sales of 170 by 2010.

COSTS: An-38-100 basic price US$4 million (2000); An-38-200 US$3.5 million (2003).

DESIGN FEATURES: Developed from PZL Mielec (Antonov) An-28 to replace An-24s, Let L 410s and Yak-40s. New high-efficiency engines; lengthened passenger cabin; optional weather radar and automatic flight control system; improved sound and vibration insulation; reduced external noise; wheel or ski landing gear; rear cargo door and cargo handling system; able to operate from unpaved runways; operating temperatures from -45 to +45°C, including 'hot-and-high' conditions. Service life 30,000 hours. Maintenance requirement 4 man-hours/flying hour.

FLYING CONTROLS: Conventional and manual. Single-slotted mass and aerodynamically balanced ailerons (port aileron has trim tab), designed to droop with large, hydraulically actuated, two-segment double-slotted flaps; electrically actuated trim tabs in each elevator have manual back-up; twin rudders each with electrically actuated trim tab; automatic leading-edge slats over full span of wing outboard of engines; slab-type spoiler forward of each aileron and each outer flap segment at 75 per cent chord.

LANDING GEAR: Tricycle type; fixed. Mainwheels 610x320-330; nosewheel 600x320-254.

POWER PLANT: Two Honeywell TPE331-14GR-801E turboprops, each 1,118 kW (1,500 shp), driving Hartzell HC-B5MA five-blade propellers rotating at 1,522 rpm; or two Omsk MKB 'Mars' TVD-20 turboprop, each 1,029 kW (1,380 shp), driving Aerosila AV-36M quiet, constant-speed reversible-pitch propellers rotating at 1,827 rpm.

ACCOMMODATION: Two crew side by side on flight deck; passenger cabin equipped normally with 26 seats, basically three-abreast, with centre aisle; 27 seats at 75 cm (29½ in) pitch optional; ambulance version for six stretchers, eight seated casualties and medical attendant, executive versions with eight to 10 seats and forest surveillance/paradrop version for 26 smoke-jumpers or trainee paratroops (reduced to 22 with full kit) available; seats and baggage compartment can be folded quickly against cabin wall to provide clear space for 2,500 kg (5,510 lb) of freight. Maximum practical cargo dimensions in combi variant are 1.40 m (4 ft 7 in) height and 1.05 m (3 ft 5¼ in) width with seats removed or 0.95 m (3 ft 1½ in) with seats stowed against walls. Doors with airstairs on port side, with service door opposite; emergency exit each side. Optional cargo door under upswept rear fuselage slides forward under cabin for direct loading/unloading of freight.

AVIONICS: Russian or Western equipment; latter comprises Bendix/King Silver Crown range; former listed below.
Comms: SO-72 transponder.
Radar: A813Ts weather radar.
Flight: BSFK-1 navigation system; VEM-72PB-3A altimeter and A-037 radar altimeter; twin US-450K airspeed indicators; SAU-28 AFCS; M3 GPS; VMD-94 DME; SPPZ-200 GPWS; TCAS-2000 TCAS; and KURS-93M autoland.

EQUIPMENT: Hand-operated travelling overhead winch in cabin; capacity 500 kg (1,102 lb).