TYPE: Supersonic business jet.
PROGRAMME: Design concept completed by December 2003; development planned to begin in first half of 2004, subject to obtaining start-up funding. Subscale supersonic passenger aircraft (SPS) as first stage towards prospective international (Europe-wide), large-capacity (provisionally SPS-2) supersonic transport.
COSTS: Approximately USD1 billion estimated to develop Tu-444; unit cost (target) USD50 million.
DESIGN FEATURES: Tail-less delta; urea-ruled fuselage; low-mounted wing with large root strakes. All-flying, single-fin vertical tail. Pitch- and laterally statically unstable with FBW control. Nose droops for take-off and landing. Wing has elevons drooped during take-off and landing and adaptive deflectable leading-edges. Powerful trailing-edge trimming surfaces. May feature retractable nose multislot destabiliser similar to that of Tu-144.
Adaptive leading-edges designed to improve aerodynamic quality (L/D ratio) might not be used at the initial stage of demonstrator flight test. Wing characterised by mid-surface deformation and by geometric and aerodynamic twist along the span; aerofoil thickness ratio changes spanwise from 2.5 to 3.5 per cent. Saw-tooth leading-edge is also integral fuel tank. Wingroot houses main landing gear legs and wheel wells between engine nacelles.
Blended engine pods below wing surface have controlled air intakes for supersonic flight with vertical ramp which is scaled copy of Tu-160 units. Turbofans moved aft from under torsion box and turned slightly upwards so rear fuselage and fin act as shields to cut down side noise level during take-off run. To obtain maximum flight test data, demonstrator will be fitted with afterburning turbofans.
FLYING CONTROLS: Fly-by-wire.
STRUCTURE: The fuselage divided into three parts: (a) nose, pressurised fuselage with cockpit, equipment compartments, mainwheel wells, entrance vestibule and coat room, galley, in-built folded stairs, passenger compartment and lavatory; (b) mid-portion with integral fuel tank and air-conditioning system; (c) tail section with electrical and hydraulic system and APU compartments.
LANDING GEAR: Tricycle type; retractable. Nose gear offset to starboard. Mainwheels retract inwards; nosewheel forward.
POWER PLANT: Two non-reheated NPO Saturn AL-42 turbofans, based on military AL-31F/AL-41F-1, each 95.1 kN (21,385 lb st).
ACCOMMODATION: Two pilots; one steward; and six passengers. Optionally, 10 passengers and reduced range. Forward windscreen covered by raised nosecone when in high-speed flight; side windows only in nosecone.
AVIONICS: Demonstrator’s flight and navigation equipment of open architecture design for later augmentation and transfer to production aircraft.
- Wing span: 16.20 m (53 ft 1¾ in)
- Wing aspect ratio: 1.9
- Length overall: 36.00 m (118 ft 1¼ in)
- Max diameter of fuselage: 2.28 m (7 ft 5¾ in)
- Height overall: 6.51 m (21 ft 4¼ in)
- Wheel track: 4.41 m (14 ft 5½ in)
- Wheelbase: 11.04 m (36 ft 2¾ in)
- Door height to sill: 2.85 m (9 ft 4¼ in)
- Cabin: Max height: 1.95 m (6 ft 4¾ in)
- Wings, gross: 136.0 m² (1,463.9 sq ft)
WEIGHTS AND LOADINGS:
- Weight empty: 19,300 kg (42,549 lb)
- Max payload: 6,000 kg (13,228 lb)
- Max fuel weight: 20,500 kg (45,195 lb)
- Max T-O weight: 41,000 kg (90,389 lb)
- Max wing loading: 301.5 kg/m² (61.75 lb/sq ft)
- Max power loading: 215.50 kg/KN (2.11 lb/lb st)
- Gruising speed: supersonic: M2.0 (1.147 kt; 2,125 km/h; 1,320 mph)
- subsonic: 567 kt (1,050 km/h; 652 mph)
- Required runway length: 1,830 m (6,005 ft)
- Range with NBAA reserves: 3,779 n miles (7,000 km; 4,349 miles)