In September 1930 Leningrad LIIPS (institute for sail and communication engineers) formed UK-GVF (civil air fleet training organization) which in turn formed NIAI (Nauchno-Issledovatelskii Aero-Institut, scientific research aero institute) in 1931. From 1934 organized into design brigades led by G.I. Bakshayev, A.I. Lisichkin, A.G. Bedunkovich and Yu.V. Domrachyev. Produced at least 48 aircraft of 14 types, notably: NIAI-1/LK-1 by Lisichkin and V.F. Rentel, 4-seat blended wing/fuselage (May 1933), NIAI-4/LK-4 by Bedunkovich, 6 variants of STOL biplane (early 1934), LK tandem cabin monoplane by Bakshayev (1936), RK/LIG-7 by Bakshayev with telescopic variable-area wings 1936 (to lead to RK-1 fighter never built), P-3/LIG-5 family of biplanes (from 1936), LEM-3/LIG-6 10-seat 100-hp monoplane (1936) and SKh-1/LIG-10 multirole and ag-biplane (1937).