Italian Roberto Bartini, Communist, emigrated to Soviet Union 1923 and devoted life to designing Soviet aircraft. Served Red Army to 1928; then joined OSS 'Stal', headed his own brigade; arrested 1938 but 1942 permitted to organize design bureau Siberia, finally closed 1948, Bartini later being appointed NII head of strategic planning. Designed VVA-14 Ekranoplan 1967, built by Beriev, but work withered on his death 6 December 1974.

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