Zaklady Mecaniczne E. Plage & T. Laskiewicz formed 1864 at Lublin, and aviation division formed 1920 as soon as country independent. Began by licence production of Ansaldo SVA Balilla (70) and A.300 (80), followed by Potez XV (about 200) and Fokker VIIB/3m (11). M. Rudlicki taken on as chief engineer, produced R.VIII biplane recon-bomber (usually 650-hp Lorraine), R.IX 8-seater (Jupiter), R.X trainer (Whirlwind), R.XIII trainer or observation parasol monoplane (1931, over 220 built in many versions), P.XIV parasol trainer, R.XVI 5-seat monoplane with XVIB ambulance version, and R.XIX conversion of R.XIII to test Rudlicki’s butterfly tail (which was flown 1925 on licence-built Hanriot).

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