After Second World War Polish aircraft industry state-controlled, assigning production to PZL factories but permitting design and development to be undertaken by Lotnicze Warsztaty Doswiadczaine (LWD), or aircraft experimental workshops, Lodz. Staff under Tadeusz Soltyk produced first post-war Polish aircraft, LWD Szpak-2 (designed at Lublin 1945), 4-seat low-wing tourer. Developed into Szpak-3 (fixed tricycle gear), -4A open side-by-side aerobatic trainer and -4T improved 4-seater. Other 1947 aircraft included Zak-1 side-by-side trainer, Zak-2 open version and Zak-3 with Continental A50 replaced by Walter Mikron. In 1948 LWD flew Junak-1 (cadet 1) tandem military trainer, followed by Junak-2 (160-hp M-11FR) and Junak-3 with tricycle landing gear. Mis transport never completed, but 1 prototype flown of Zuraw (crane) STOL multirole aircraft (16 May 1951) before LWD closed.