J.D. (Joop) Carley established Carley's Aircraft Manufactory at Ede, Gelderland, 1921. C.III tandem trainer flew September 1922. S.1 single-seater with 20-hp Anzani flew 29 November 1923. Followed with C.II (100-hp Le Rhône) and C.12 (first 10-hp Indian, then 20-hp Anzani). Gave up own company but later designed transport for Werkspoor.