English name: Great Flight

TYPE: Basic turboprop trainer.

PROGRAMME: Started February 1988; built under KTX (Korean Trainer Experimental) programme to degign by Daewoo and ADD (Agency for Defence Development); construction of first prototype began June 1991; nine prototypes (01-05 flying and 001-004 for static and fatigue test), of which 01, with 410 kW (550 shp) PT6A-25A engine, rolled out November 1991 and made first flight 12 December that year; 02, identical to 01, made first flight 5 February 1993; 03 (with PT6A-62) made first flight on 10 August 1995; named Woong-Bee in November 1995; 04, which first flew on 10 May 1996, further modified with nose shortened and horizontal tail surfaces remounted lower and farther aft; 03 also modified to this standard. Fifth (preproduction) prototype 05 flew for the first time on 16 March 1998; development and operational testing completed 18 September 1998 after 1,474 flying hours in 1,184 sorties. Series production began 1999; first aircraft handed over to RoKAF at Sachon AB on 7 November 2000 for use by 217 Tactical Training Squadron.

CURRENT VERSIONS: KT-1: Standard trainer, as described.
KT-1B: Export designation for Indonesian Air Force; some different avionics to customer's requirements and no automatic rudder trim.
KT-1C: Proposed export version, with enhanced avionics suite to be integrated by CMC Electronics of Canada, based on that company's SparrowHawk HUD and a pair of CMC FV-4000 mission computers. 'All-glass' cockpit will also feature CMC up-front control panel and (in both cockpits) three 152 x 203 mm (6 x 8 in) MFDs. A cockpit demonstrator was due to be displayed at the Seoul Air Show in late 2003. Other reported features include ability to carry a FLIR sensor and laser range-finder on the centreline stores station; a vapour-cycle ECS; and OBOGS.
XKO-1: Forward air control (Experimental Korean Observer) version for RoKAF. Development started in 2000 by modifying aircraft 05 to FAC configuration with weapon management system, HUD, armament management LCD MFD and four underwing hardpoints; first flight in this configuration 1 November 2001. Deliveries to begin in 2003.
KO-1: Armed trainer (new export version); full 'glass cockpit', off-the-shelf avionics, HOTAS controls, weapon delivery system (simulated and live, up to six hardpoints and OBOGS. Under development.

CUSTOMERS: Total of 105 production aircraft approved by Republic of Korea Air Force (RoKAF). Contract 9 August 1999 for 85 KT-1 trainers, of which more than 55 delivered by mid-2003, to replace Cessna T-37s. Follow-on option for 20 XKO-1s for forward air control duties. Indonesian Air Force announced order for seven KT-1Bs on 26 February 2001, which were due for delivery between May and October 2003; first aircraft (LD-0101) released to Indonesian Air Force 25 April 2003 in advance of official handover; IAF has option on further 13; to replace Beechcraft T-34Cs of No. 102 Squadron.

DESIGN FEATURES: Meets requirements of FAR/JAR 23 (Aerobatic Category) and MIL-F-8785C trainer category Class IV. Able to cover entire primary and basic training syllabus and forward air control missions.
Unswept low wing with NACA 63-218 (root) and 63-212 (tip) aerofoil sections; tandem cockpits; conventional unswept vertical and horizontal tail surfaces; four weapon hardpoints (four to six in KO-1); retractable tricycle landing gear.

FLYING CONTROLS: Primary control surfaces actuated mechanically, with electrically operated trim tab in starboard elevator and port aileron; automatic rudder trim (not on KT-1B) compensates for propeller-induced yaw to provide jet-like handling; rudder and one-piece elevator are horn-balanced. Airbrake under centre-fuselage and split flaps on wing trailing-edge are hydraulically operated.

LANDING GEAR: Hydraulically retractable tricycle type, with single wheel and oleo-pneumatic shock-absorber on each unit. Mainwheels retract inward; nosewheel is steerable ±18° and retracts rearward. Parker Hannifin mainwheels with 18x5.5 tyres (10 ply), pressure 9.65 bar (140 lb/sq in). Dunlop nosewheel with 5.00-5 tyre (14 ply), pressure 6.90 bar (100 lb/sq in). Parker Hannifin hydraulic mainwheel brakes.

POWER PLANT: One 708 kW (950 shp) (flat rated) Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-62 turboprop, driving a Hartzell HC-E4N-2/E9512CB-1 four-blade constant-speed fully feathering propeller. Single-lever combined control for engine fuel and propeller pitch.
Fuel in one 275.5 litre (72.8 US gallon; 60.6 Imp gallon) integral tank in each wing, giving total internal fuel capacity of 551 litres (146 US gallons; 121 Imp gallons). Gravity fuelling point in each wing upper surface. Provision for 189 litre (50.0 US gallon; 41.6 Imp gallon) auxiliary fuel tank on each inboard underwing station. Oil capacity 5.7 litres (1.5 US gallons; 1.25 Imp gallons). Fuel system permits up to 30 seconds of inverted flight.

ACCOMMODATION: Instructor and pupil in tandem cockpits on Martin-Baker Mk 16LF zero/zero ejection seats; rear seat elevated. One-piece canopy with MDC opens sideways to starboard.

SYSTEMS: Compressed bleed air air conditioning system for cockpit ventilation, heating, cooling and demisting; heating and cooling by wheel bootstrap air cycle system driven by engine compressor. Self-pressurised main and emergency hydraulic systems, operating pressure 207 bar (3,000 lb/sq in), flow rate 17.8 litres (4.7 US gallons; 3.9 Imp gallons)/min at 7,650 rpm. Pneumatic back-up system, also 207 bar (3,000 lb/sq in), for landing gear, wheel bay doors and flaps. Electrical power (28 V DC) available from engine-driven starter/generator and built-in battery, or from external power source. Fixed-geometry inertial separator for engine intake anti-icing. Diluter demand oxygen system provides 1,367 litres (48.2 cu ft) gaseous capacity for crew; selected and controlled individually from regulator/control panel in each cockpit.

AVIONICS (KT-1): Comms: Commercial instead of MIL-STD UHF/VHF; ATC transponder replaces IFF; flight load data recorder deleted.
AVIONICS (XKO-1): Comms: Integrated UHF/VHF radios, IFF, interphone and control system; optional ELT.
Flight: GPS/INS and Tacan; optional VOR/ILS.
Instrumentation: As KT-1, plus Elop HUD and Astronautics MFDs. Options include mission computer, AVTR and NVG-compatible cockpit lighting system.

ARMAMENT: Two stores stations under each wing. Four MBM Technology modular advanced lightweight training system (MALTS) practice bomb carriers on KT-1; XKO-1 equipped with underwing pylons for two 0.50 in machine gun pods (inboard); two LAU-3A or LAU-131A seven-round rocket launchers (outboard); two air-to-air training missiles (outboard); four Mk 81, Mk 82 or practice bombs (inboard/outboard); or two drop tanks (outboard). Provision for fuselage centreline station for laser range-finder, FLIR or chaff/flare dispenser pod.