TYPE: Two-seat lightplane; tandem-seat ultralight.
PROGRAMME: First flight March 1993; certified by FAA in primary aircraft sport category.
CURRENT VERSIONS: Designations refer to maximum T-O weights in kilograms.
450T, 450TS, 450TG and 450TGS: For markets where MTOW for ultralights is 450 kg (including Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Netherlands and Norway). TG/TGS are German versions.
480T and 480TS: For markets (including Australia and New Zealand) where MTOW for ultralights is 480 kg.
500TF: For markets (including France) where MTOW for ultralights is 500 kg.
544TS: For markets where MTOW for ultralights is 544 kg.
560TS: For markets (including Canada) where MTOW for ultralights is 560 kg.
650TC and 650TCS: JAR22 and FAR Pt 33 certified models. MTOW 650 kg. First production 650TC (I-TREI) built 1996; 13 produced by mid-2001. None further by early 2003.
650TCN and 650TCNS: JAR-VLA and FAR Pt 33 certified for day or night VFR operation. FAA certificate awarded 3 March 2003. MTOW 650 kg. Total 24 built by late 2002.
Description below applies to these versions, except where noted.
650 TCNS ERA: Environmental Research Aircraft variant equipped with surface surveillance sensors provided by the US National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration. Features fully retractable nosewheel and folding main landing gear.
650 TCNS RAWAS: Remotely Assisted Working Aerial System. Mission equipment can include gyrostabilised and traversable video cameras, and FLIR, IR linescan, vertical multispectral sensor, crop growth monitoring sensors, magnetometer or vertical panoramic still camera; operates as airborne relay station for RAWAS surveillance system, receiving and transmitting data at range up to 52 n miles (96 km; 60 miles) from mobile ground station. Fully retractable nosewheel and folding main landing gear.
RFG: 'Retractable Fixed Gear'. One aircraft (I-RAWE), demonstrated 2001; proof-of-concept for ERA and RAWAS versions, providing clear field of view for ventral sensors. Nosewheel retracts conventionally; regular Sky Arrow mainwheel legs splay outwards and upwards. Configuration being delivered in early 2003, when third version was under study.
CUSTOMERS: Over 200 built by 2003.
DESIGN FEATURES: Designed with objectives of good view from cockpit, lightness, ease of maintenance, ease of disassembly for transport and storage. Capable of being converted to an amphibian, with additional endplate fins on tailplane. High-mounted engine behind wing; pusher propeller, low-mounted pod fuselage below propeller carries T tail.
Wing aerofoil Gottingen 398 modified to enhance low-speed handling; constant wing chord; dihedral 1o 30'; twist 1o; strut-braced wings easily detachable at centreline joint.
FLYING CONTROLS: Conventional and manual. Ailerons and elevator are actuated by aluminium rods, rudder by cables. Electrically actuated half-span flaps and tabs; aileron deflections +20/-14o, elevator +22/-14o, rudder ±23o; flap deflections 10, 20 and 30o; centrally mounted elevator tab for trimming. Full dual controls (sidestick and rudder) and two throttles.
STRUCTURE: Fuselage, wings, tail unit and landing gear manufactured from carbon fibre sandwich with Kevlar for strengthening in some areas, such as the cabin. Fuselage constructed of right and left halves bonded together, containing six minor and two major bulkheads. Wings built round two C-section spars. Sky Arrow 450 and 480 series have aluminium wings which can be replaced by carbon fibre units. Horizontal tail surfaces of aluminium.
LANDING GEAR: Fixed tricycle; hydraulic disc brakes; multilayer carbon- and glass fibre main gear; steel/carbon fibre nose leg with rubber and spring shock-absorber; hand-actuated mainwheel brakes; castoring nosewheel; twin amphibious floats and aerodynamic fairings optional.
POWER PLANT: 450T, 450TG, 480T and 500TF: One 59.6 kW (79.9 hp) Rotax 912 UL flat-four four-stroke, driving a two-blade fixed-pitch Hoffmann propeller via 1:2.27 reduction gear.
450TGS, 480TS, 544TS and 560TS: One 73.5 kW (98.6 hp) Rotax 912 ULS driving a two-blade fixed-pitch propeller via 1:2.43 reduction gear; three-blade propeller standard on 450TG and 450TGS; optional on 450T.
650TC and 650TCN: One 59.6 kW (79.9 hp) Rotax 912 A or 912 F, driving a Hoffmann HO17GHM-174 177CLD wood/composites, two-blade, fixed-pitch propeller.
650TCS and 650TCNS: One 73.5 kW (98.6 hp) Rotax 912 S2 driving a Hoffmann HO17GHM-174 177CLD wood/composites, two-blade, fixed-pitch propeller.
Fuel capacity (all) 68 litres (18.0 US gallons; 15.0 Imp gallons), of which 67 litres (17.8 US gallons; 14.8 Imp gallons) are usable. Tank behind rear seat.
ACCOMMODATION: Two seats in tandem; sideways-opening tinted canopy; baggage compartments below and behind rear seat.
SYSTEMS: Dual hydraulic brakes. Electrical system includes 12 V 14 Ah battery; alternator.
AVIONICS: Comms: Single Bendix/King KX-125 nav com, dual optional; KT-76A transponder; altitude encoder; audio panel with voice-activated intercom; two Sigtronics headsets; ELT.
Flight: Bendix/King KLX-1325A com/GPS optional.
Instrumentation: ASI; altimeter; rate of climb indicator; attitude indicator; directional gyro; turn-and-bank indicator, magnetic compass; pitch trim indicator; tachometer; fuel quantity, fuel pressure, oil temperature, oil pressure, water temperature and vacuum gauges; ammeter/voltmeter; and flight hours meter, all standard. Mainfold pressure indicator kit optional.
EQUIPMENT: Optional handicapped pilot kit comprises sidestick controller on port cockpit console for rudder and throttle inputs, enabling the aircraft to be flown by pilots unable to use their legs; baggage compartment accommodates folding wheelchair. Fitted trailer for road transportation, with hydraulic loading system, optional. Banner/glider towing hook, incorporating LCD micro video camera for monitoring towing operation, optional.