Spanish Air Force designations: C.16 and CE.16
Royal Air Force designations: Typhoon T. Mk 1, T. Mk 1A and F. Mk 2
TYPE: Multirole fighter.
PROGRAMME: Politico-industrial history began with outline staff target for common combat aircraft issued December 1983 by air chiefs of staff of France, Germany, Italy, Spain and UK; initial feasibility study launched July 1984; France withdrew July 1985, shareholdings then being readjusted to 33 per cent each to UK and Germany, 21 per cent Italy and 13 per cent Spain; project definition phase completed September 1986; definitive ESR-D (European Staff Requirement - Development) issued September 1987, giving military requirements in greater detail; definition refinement and risk reduction stage completed December 1987; main engine and weapons system development contracts signed 23 November 1988.
Programme re-examined in 1992 following German demands for substantial cost reduction and studies of alternative proposals, which submitted in October 1992, although none was adopted; Italy and Spain froze EFA work mid-October. Defence ministers' conference of 10 December 1992 relaunched aircraft as Eurofighter 2000, delaying service entry by three years, to 2000, and allowing Germany to incorporate off-shelf avionics (AN/APG-65 radar suggested), lower standard of defensive aids and other deletions to effect 30 per cent price cut. By 1996, however, these downgrades had been abandoned and Eurofighter GmbH was planning for German production almost identical to the common standard.
Additional difficulties resulted from German under-funding and demands for further cost cuts. Political re-apportionment of production work-shares negotiated in 1995, following reduction of German requirement. Revised European Staff Requirement - Development signed by four air forces, 21 January 1994 and re-orientation of programme agreed in MoU 4, July 1995. MoU 5, covering work-shares, delayed to 1996 by German claims for 30 per cent, despite 140 aircraft requirement representing only 23 per cent of production. Compromise, agreed January 1996, involves addition of at least 40 (and possibly up to 60) ground attack aircraft to German requirement after 2012 and reduction of UK needs to 232. Work-shares for production phase finally agreed as 30 per cent to Germany, 37 per cent to UK, 19 per cent to Italy and 14 per cent to Spain. However, for first 148 aircraft, agreed 1998, average shares are 30, 36.33, 20 and 13.67 per cent, respectively. Initial production details contained in Quotation 4, submitted in March 1996; this envisaged start of manufacturing in January 1998 and (after minor restructuring) production of three in 2001, 12 in 2002, 37 in 2003, 46 in 2004 and 52 per year thereafter.
Eurofighter GmbH held open the terms of Quotation 4 throughout 1996 as Germany repeatedly postponed a production decision as a consequence of financial constraints. UK was first to declare a firm production commitment, on 2 September 1996, and Spain followed on 21 October 1996, when terms for start-up funding were agreed with industry. All four governments declared support for a production launch on 5 December 1996, although Germany and Italy did not grant funds until 26 November and 9 December 1997, respectively, allowing defence ministers' conference on 22 December 1997 to launch production phase. First metal for a production aircraft was cut at DASA's Augsburg plant in May 1998. Each partner nation is assembling its own aircraft on lines at Manching (Germany), operational from December 2000; Caselle (Italy), operational November 2000; Getafe (Spain), operational June 2001 (officially 26 July 2001); and Warton (UK), operational September 2000. Locations for assembly of export aircraft yet to be announced. Assembly of major components for first production aircraft began at Augsburg (Germany) in February 1999 and Casselle in March; final assembly of this aircraft began at Warton on 8 September 2000 following arrival of centre fuselage from Germany on 31 August.
First (instrumented) production aircraft flew (in Italy) on 5 April 2002; initial 'delivery' was 'presentation' of first full production aircraft GT001/9831 to Luftwaffe at manufacturer's German plant, the aircraft not flying until 13 February 2003, following which, on 17 February, it was delivered to a Luftwaffe technical school for ground crew familiarisation. Also by 17 February, a full production (two-seat) aircraft had flown in each of the four participating countries. On 30 June 2003 Type Acceptance certificate was issued and aircraft was formally handed over to participating air arms at national ceremonies.
In December 2002, unofficial reports claimed UK was attempting to bring forward the ground attack enhancements scheduled for Tranche 3 into the second international production batch, allowing the RAF to cut back or eliminate its final batch of 88 aircraft.
Four partner air forces initially agreed to name their aircraft Eurofighter (or EF2000), using Typhoon name for export marketing. However, on 23 July 2002, RAF also adopted Typhoon during a ceremony at Farnborough Air Show.
Engineering and flight-testing programme originally to be based on eight development aircraft (no prototypes apart from BAe EAP); reduced to seven (DA1-7) early 1991, coincident with 11 per cent cut in intended flight test programme to 4,500 hours. Total to be achieved in 2,990 sorties by DA series (635, 575, 430, 420, 385, 315 and 290 for DA1 to DA7, respectively, although this considerably changed in practice) plus 1,700 sorties by first five production aircraft (IPA), which are fitted with test instrumentation. Total 1,614 hours in 1,935 sorties accumulated by April 2002; at that time, further 2,691 sorties (including 1,516 by IPAs) envisaged before full operational capability. Totals increased by 9 December 2002 to over 2,100 hours in almost 2,500 sorties.
No formal roll-out; DA1 and DA2 remained unflown for some 18 months after completion for exhaustive cross-checking of flight control system (FCS). First flight eventually achieved on 27 March 1994, but FCS development resulted in later aircraft flying out of sequence, DA6 being fourth to fly (31 August 1996), by which time earlier aircraft had completed 241 sorties. DA5 flew Eurofighter's 500th sortie (almost 450 hours total airborne time) on 21 October 1997; the 750th sortie (over 630 hours) was flown in June 1998 and the 1,000th in May 1999. Total 1,135 sorties and 931 hours by fourth quarter of 1999; 1,000th hour flown February 2000. Some 90 per cent of flight envelope had been explored by April 1999.
Defensive aids subsystem development contract awarded to Euro-DASS 13 March 1992, but Germany and Spain initially declined to participate; production contract allocated June 2001. 'A' version of ECR 90 radar first flew in nose of modified BAe One-Eleven testbed (ZE433) at Bedford, 8 January 1993; 'C' version is first ECR 90 packaged to fit Eurofighter; flown in One-Eleven from July 1996. First development standard radar delivered to DASA in June 1996; flight testing (in DA5) began 24 February 1997. Radar named Captor in 2000; first production unit delivered in February 2001. Electronically scanned version to fly in One-Eleven by 2003, for possible service in 2010.
Major airframe fatigue test (AFT) fuselage at Ottobrunn achieved 6,000 hours in May 1995 and target of 18,000 hours (equivalent to 6,000 hours of service use) on 4 September 1998.
In 1998, BAe undertook a UK Ministry of Defence funded study of a possible short take-off but arrested recovery (STOBAR) Eurofighter which could operate from aircraft carriers. Officially confirmed in early 2000 that navalised Eurofighter was one option under consideration for Royal Navy's Future Carrier-Borne Aircraft (FCBA) requirement although Lockheed Martin F-35 is selected type.
Production version of EJ200 engine certified 8 March 2001. Thrust vectoring nozzles for EJ200 had undergone 78 hours of bench testing by mid-2000. Study launched by ITP of Spain in 1994, using private funding. Trial system demonstrated 23° 30' vector angle and 110°/s slew rate; advantages of installation for regular use would include 3 per cent reduction in cruise drag, 7 per cent improvement in sustained turn rate, 7 per cent increase in installed thrust, 25 per cent reduction of take-off run and 3 per cent reduction of mission fuel burn.
Three production Tranches subdivided into eight Blocks, each of increased capability: Tranche 1 (148 aircraft) begins with PSP 1 (Block 1), software standard, suitable only for basic air defence training; PSP 2 (Block 2) configuration (2003-04) fully air defence capable (AMRAAM, ASRAAM, AIM-9) through addition of direct voice input (DVI), digital datalink (MIDS) and MLA, plus limited ground attack capability and interim defensive aids subsystem (DASS); PSP 3 (Block 5), representing 2005 production, gives 'swing role' capability with unguided air-to-surface weaponry (augmented by Paveway II and ALARM modifications for only UK; GBU-16 for Italy), enhanced situational awareness and improved survivability through incorporation of PIRATE passive tracking system, helmet-mounted display, towed radar decoy and full sensor fusion. Following five instrumented production aircraft, PSP 1 was to have been achieved in June 2002 on delivery of second two-seater for RAF (production number BT002), which is seventh series production (SPA7). PSP 2 to have followed in December 2003 with SPA44 (fourth RAF single-seat; BS004); and PSP 3 in April 2005 with SPA115 (20th German single-seat; GS020).
Tranche 2 aircraft, totalling 236, begin with Block 8 (2006 production), heaving new hardware standard, including updated mission computer; Block 100 (2007-08 production) will be to EOC 1 (enhanced operational capability) standard (adding Paveway III, IRIS-T, AIM-120C-5, plus full-standard DASS and other interoperability features) and EOC2 (Block 15, built 2009 to late 2010) will add Meteor AAM, Storm Shadow, Taurus and GPS/IN guided weapons and reconnaissance capability; increased MTOW of 24,500 kg (54,013 lb) under consideration.
Tranche 3, comprising 236 aircraft, envisaged as Block 20 and 25, built late 2010 to early 2015, has yet to be defined.
In April 2002, industrial partners completed a 12-month study into further development of Eurofighter to maintain operational effectiveness beyond 2040. Options addressed (some previously mooted unofficially) included electronically scanned radar, two-dimensional thrust vectoring, extended range and signature reduction. These to be applicable to Tranche 2 and 3 aircraft. Germany and UK seeking to add long-range attack capability in Tranche 3; BAe Systems announced completion in May 2002 of wind tunnel trials of conformal fuel tanks offering 25 per cent extension of range and mockup shown at Farnborough in July 2002.
CURRENT VERSIONS (general): Single-seater: Standard version. Known to RAF as Typhoon F. Mk 2 and to Spanish Air Force as C.16.
Two-seater: Combat-capable conversion trainer. Slightly reduced internal fuel capacity. Known to RAF as Typhoon T. Mk 1 (first tranche), T. Mk 1A (second tranche) and to Spanish Air Force as CE.16.
CURRENT VERSIONS (specific): DA1/9B29: (DASA-built at Ottobrunn; airframe No. 01; Luftwaffe serial number 9829). By road to Manching 11 May 1992; first flight, 27 March 1994, using Phase 0 software; planned transfer to Warton for handling and envelope expansion trials (wearing UK serial number ZH586) cancelled; remained at Manching; nine sorties to June 1994, when grounded for FCS upgrade to Phase 2; reflown 18 September 1995; first sortie by a German military pilot (Lt Col Heinz Spolgen), March 1996 at start of initial military evaluation phase which completed on 24 April 1996. Total 123 flights by late 1997, when stood down for retrofit with EJ200 series 03Z engines, plus parallel avionics upgrade to 3910 standard and installation of Martin-Baker Mk 16 ejection seats. Upgrade completed in November 1998; returned to flying in third quarter of 1999. Laid up 11 September 2000 with 184 hours 24 minutes in 232 sorties; flight control system upgrade; remained unflown in February 2001. Made first Eurofighter visit to JBG 38 at Jever on 3 July 2001 for two weeks of flights over North Sea air combat range. Refuelled from Panavia Tornado, August 2001. Total 313 flights and 254 hours by April 2002. Transferred to Getafe, Spain, 8 April 2003.
DA2/ZH588: (BAE at Warton: airframe No.02). First engine run 30 August 1992, first flight 6 April 1994; assigned to envelope expansion, 'carefree' handling and load trial; nine sorties to June 1994, when stood-down for FCS upgrade; reflown 17 May 1995 with Phase 2 version of flight software and made Eurofighter's world public debut (Paris, 11 June 1995, static) and UK debut (Fairford, 22 July 1995, flying). On 9 November 1995, 57th sortie was also first with an RAF pilot (Sdqn Ldr Simon Dyde). Demonstrated 25° AoA in May 1997, followed by radar decoy trials and demonstration of full 'carefree' handling. First M2.0 Eurofighter sortie 23 December 1997; first aerial refuelling (RAF VC10) 14 January 1998. Retrofitted with EJ200 engines, upgraded avionics and Mk 16 ejection seat; reflown late August 1998. Achieved 15,240 m (50,000 ft), April 1999. Prepared for load testing during mid-1999. First to fly with 2B2 software, 7 July 2000, by which time painted black overall, to cover installation of more than 500 pressure transducers for airflow measurement. Laid up 18 December 2000 with 303 hours 3 minutes in 345 sorties; fuel system upgrade; engine relight trials, 2001; ASRAAM compatibility trials, early 2002. Total 404 flights and 362 hours by April 2002. 'Carefree handling' trials completed by mid-2002; DASS decoy trials.
DA3/MMX602: (Alenia at Turin/Caselle; airframe No. 04) First with EJ200 power plants (series -01A) for engine trials (originally scheduled from March 1993 but postponed) and gun/weapon release trials. Initial flight 4 June 1995 on Phase 1 software (20° AoA and +6 g limits). Total 53 sorties by 1 September 1996 (all with Phase 1 software). Refitted with EJ200-01C engines in 1996; in-flight engine relight demonstrated December 1996; first sortie with two 1,000 litre underwing tanks 5 December 1997; EJ200-03A engine by early 1998; 1,500 litre tanks, February 1999; M1.6 with two 1,000 litre tanks, March 1999; 200th sortie, November 1999. Initiated ground dropping trials of air-to-surface weapons, 1999. Laid up 31 March 2000 with 191 hours 51 minutes in 246 sorties; gun and ejection seat upgrade; remained unflown for most of 2001. First Eurofighter gun firing, 13 March 2002. Total 250 flights and 195 hours by April 2002.
DA4/ZH590: (BAE; airframe No. 03) First two-seat and first with full avionics (including ECR 90) for radar development, and 'carefree' handling trials. Rolled out 4 May 1994; first flight 14 March 1997; 14 sorties up to end of first phase of trials on 8 September 1997. First scheduled demonstration of supercruise 20 February 1998; lightning srike trials in test rig at Warton May-June 1998; rear cockpit activated (as on other two-seaters) 19 April 1999; autopilot autothrottle activated 28 April 1999; first flight of helmet-mounted sight 17 June 1999; Eurofighter 1,000th hour flown February 2000 on aircraft's 75th sortie. First to fly with active missile approach warning. First two-seat Eurofighter night flight. Laid up 13 April 2000 with 98 hours 57 minutes in 97 sorties; DASS ground trials 2001; upgrades to avionics and power generation system; returned to flying in November 2001; weapons integration trials, including first guided AMRAAM firing against drone target 9 April 2002. Total 127 flights and 138 hours by April 2002; 128th sortie was first two-seat air refuelling, first refuelling with external tanks, first night refuelling and longest Eurofighter sortie (4 hours 22 minutes). DASS ESM trials 2002.
DA5/9830: (DASA) Construction begun 2 November 1992; maiden flight 24 February 1997; first with ECR 90 radar; autopilot and weapons trials. DS-X radar software standard upgraded to DS-C1 in June 1997, at which time first EJ200-03A engines fitted. Reportedly is testbed for latests standard of radar-absorbent materials. Deployed to Rygge, Norway. June 1998 (first visit to prospective customer outside original partner nations), for evaluation. Flown by Norwegian test pilot, 15 December 1998. New standard software (Phase 2B1; also in DA4) flown 1 April 1999, permitting autopilot and autothrottle operation. Radar trials against four simultaneous targets, mid-1999; flew Typhoon's 1,000th sortie 18 May 1999, representing 830 hours. In-flight icing trials, February 2000. Completed radar trials, 15 to 29 March 2001, with 20-ship tests in various modes. Total 243 flights and 218 hours by April 2002.
DA6/XCE.16-01: (EADS CASA at Seville) Second two-seat; performance (including 'carefree' handling), environmental systems, MIDS integration and helmet integration trials. Scheduled (by 1995 reprioritisation) to be fourth to fly; early 1996 date set back by six months for recheking of Phase 2A software. First flight 31 August 1996; high-temperature trials at Morón, Spain, from 20 July 1998; trials of LCSS (see Systems) cooled aircrew clothing, June 1999; environmental trials (with DA1), including ground tests at Boscombe Down, completed May 2000. Direct voice input trials begun 2001. Suffered double flame-out of 03A-standard engines on 21 November 2002 and abandoned by crew. Total 324 hours in over 340 sorties.
DA7: (Alenia) Nav/com, performance and weapons integration trials. First flight 27 January 1997. First firing of AIM-9L Sidewinder 15 December 1997; first AIM-120 AMRAAM jettison two days later; first (1,000 litre) external wing tank jettison 17 June 1988. Total 94 hours 21 minutes in 177 sorties to 2 February 2001. AMRAAM and AIM-9L launch trials, Sardinia, from April 2001; ASRAAM launch, June 2001. PIRATE sensor trials 2001. Total 327 flights and 196 hours by April 2002.
Further eight ground testing part-airframes and five instrumented production aircraft.
IPA1/ZJ699: (UK) Two-seat; first production Eurofighter Typhoon. Production numbers PT001/BTT1. Final assembly began 8 September 2000; delivery was due in late 2001; however, first flight postponed to 15 April 2002; first supersonic flight by a production aircraft, 26 April 2002; short lay-up after six sorties for addition of refuelling probe, flight test instrumentation and paint. Defensive aids trials. Planned 414 sorties to FOC.
IPA2/MMX614: (Italy) Two-seat; PT002; ait-to-surface weapon and sensor fusion trials. Final assembly began 3 November 2000. First flight 5 April 2002. Planned 301 sorties to FOC.
IPA3/9803: (Germany) Two seat; PT003; air-to-surface weapon integration. Rolled out 2 March 2002. First flight 8 April 2002. Planned 408 sorties to FOC.
IPA4: (Spain) Single-seat; PS001; AAM and gun trials; environmental system trials. Planned 170 sorties to FOC. First components delivered March 2003; to fly late 2003.
IPA5: (UK) Single-seat; PT001; air-to-air and -surface weapons trials. Serial number ZJ700. Planned 223 sorties to FOC. Not flown by mid-2003.
Early production aircraft:
GT001/9831: (Germany) Rolled out 14 November 2002; 'presented' to Luftwaffe 9 December 2002; first flight 13 February 2003; delivered to Air Force Technical School No. 1 at Kaufbeuren for ground training 17 February 2003.
IT001/MMX7235: (Italy) First flight 14 February 2003. Initially assigned to EMC clearance.
BT001/ZJ800: (UK) First flight 14 February 2003. To QinetiQ at Boscombe Down for EMC clearance.
ST001/CE.16-01: (Spain) First flight 17 February 2003.
CUSTOMERS: Originally declared requirements for 765 (UK and Germany 250 each; Italy 165 and Spain 100). In January 1994. Spain announced firm requirement for 87; Germany revised needs to 180 (including at least 40 fighter-bombers post-2012) under January 1996 work-share agreement. Final total is 620 aircraft, including 1,382 engines; plus options on 90 and 183, respectively. MoUs 6 and 7 (production and logistical support) of 3 December 1997 and Production Investment contract of 10 December followed on 22 December 1997 by political agreement of all four nations to fund production phase.
Production contract (Supplement 1) for all 620 aircraft (plus 90 options) signed 30 January 1998; Supplement 2 agreement of 18 September 1998 authorised first 148 of these on fixed-price terms, together with 363 engines. UK parliament told in early 2002 that all four participating countries were reviewing aircraft delivery schedule.
Deliveries to air forces to have begun in June 2002 with RAF and Italy; rescheduled acceptance of BT001/ZJ800 by RAF December 2002, but not effected until 30 June 2003. First RAF unit, under Wg Cdr David Chan, is Operational Evaluation Unit (OEU, also known as No. 17 (Reserve) Squadron) at BAE Warton, where first 16 pilots to be converted using initial 13 (Batch 1) aircraft in 1,300 flying hours; formation date of September 2002 delayed to 1 July 2003; first public showing of No. 17 Squadron aircraft (ZJ802 'AB') at Royal International Air Tattoo, Fairford, 18-20 July 2003. Coningsby will receive OEU (previously scheduled for January 2004) and form No. 29 (Reserve) Squadron as an OCU, followed by two operational squadrons in 2005 and 2006; two squadrons form at Leeming in 2006 and 2007; three at Leuchars in 2008-2010. First of seven combat squadrons to be air defence tasked; remainder to comprise three air defence, two multirole and one offensive support.
RAF announced in May 2000 that no ammunition would be procured for Eurofighter's cannon, despite installation of Mauser in Tranche 1 aircraft. Decision had been reversed by 2002.
First German wing will be JG 73 at Laage (formal conversion beginning 1 October 2003), followed in 2005, by JG 74 at Neuberg, both in air defence role; third wing is attack unit JG 31 at Nörvenich (from 2007); fourth is air defence JG 71 at Wittmund (from 2009); fifth is JG 33 at Büchel (2012-2015) in attack role; final German delivery in 2014, but further two squadrons (single- or two-seat to be decided) may be obtained for air-to-ground operations. Italian re-equipment begins with 4° Stormo at Grosseto (9° Gruppo from 2003 and 20° Gruppo from 2004), other bases being Cameri (53° Stormo) and Trapani (37° Stormo). First Spanish squadron to be Escuadron 113 of Ala 11 at Morón de la Frontera.
Export orders also being solicited: Norway entered exploratory discussions in 1997 with a view to acquiring up to 30 aircraft to replace Northrop F-5A/Bs; appointed a liaison officer to NETMA in 1998 and issued formal request for proposal (RFP) on 15 February 1999; suspended programme in early 2000. Greece announced intention to obtain Typhoon on 12 February 1999, government confirmation following in March 2000; local final assembly under consideration. Austria announced selection of Eurofighter on 2 July 2002. South Korean RFP received June 1999; in 2001, South Korea offered non-NATO partnership in Eurofighter, including final assembly. Eurofighter predicts export of 400 Typhoons between 2005 and 2030, worth in excess of £35 billion (2000).
Contract for Eurofighter ground support system signed 24 May 2000. UK has four training rigs, numbered ZJ695 to ZJ698. Aircrew Synthetic Training Aids programme contract signed 27 April 2001, including 18 full mission simulators and nine cockpit trainers, deliverable from March 2004 to all four participants.
COSTS: Estimated £25 to 26.5 million, UK, 1992 unit cost; DM127 million, Germany early 1992, 10 year system price; reduced to DM89 million by late 1992 economies. UK National Audit Office report of early 1996 estimated British share of the development phase to be £1,253 million (43.7 per cent), of which £407 million resulted from restructuring of keep Germany in the programme. Same source reported programme 46 per cent over budget and 36 months late by mid-1997. Total development cost estimated as US$21 billion by 1998. Combined development investment estimated (1996) as DM 18 billion (US$12.25 billion); non-recurring production investment estimated (1996) as DM12 billion (US$8.15 billion). UK expenditure up to 31 March 2001 on design, development and first batch of 55 aircraft was £5,444 million. Revised data give flyaway price of DM75 million to DM85 million (US$51 million to US$58 million) and system price of DM150 million to DM170 million (US$102 million to US$116 million) at 1996 levels. UK NAO estimated (1996) £15.4 billion for 250 RAF aircraft, including £9.5 billion for production (unit cost £38 million) and this reaffirmed (US$58 million/£37 million) in mid-1998. UK programme cost officially estimated at £16.1 billion (mid-1999); of this £5.444 million had been committed by 31 March 2001.
In January 1997, German government agreed a weapons system price (including logistics support) of DM125.4 million (US$79 million), equivalent to DM23 billion for 180 aircraft. Supplement 2 (148 aircraft) valued at DM14 billion.
DESIGN FEATURES: Aigle fighter; subsonic instability exceeds 35 per cent (as achieved by Grumman X-29 research aircraft). Collaborative design by BAE, DASA, Alenia and EADS CASA, incorporating some design and technology (including low detectability) from BAe EAP programme. No official requirement for thrust vectoring (TV), supercruise or high order of 'stealthiness'; however, TV nozzle for Eurofighter is under private development; supercruise was 'inadvertently' demonstrated at high altitude in 1997; and RAF has confirmed that aircraft meets low-observables specification.
Low-wing, low-aspect ratio tailless delta with 53° leading-edge sweepback; underfuselage box with side-by-side engine air intakes, each with fixed upper wedge/ramp and vari-cowl (variable position lower cowl lip) with Dowty actuators.
Intended servise life, 6,000 hours or 25 years. Integrated structural health-and-usage monitoring system (first in any combat aircraft) calculates structural fatigue at 20 positions on the airframe 16 times per second during flight. Maintainability features include 10 mmh/fh and single engine change by four engineers in 45 minutes. Operational turn-round by six ground crew in 25 minutes. Germany, and possibly UK, will contract-out maintenance on 'power by the hour' arrangement with private industry.
FLYING CONTROLS: Two-segment automatic slats on wing leading-edges, inboard and outboard flaperons on trailing-edges; all-moving foreplanes below windscreen; rudder; hydraulically actuated airbrake aft of canopy, forming part of dorsal spine; Liebherr primary flight control actuators. Full-authority quadruplex ACT (active control technology) digital fly-by-wire flight control system (team leader was DASA; Bodenseewerk and ENOSA flight control computer) combines with mission adaptive configuring and aircraft's instability in pitch to provide required 'carefree' handling, gust alleviation and high sustained manoeuvrability throughout flight envelope; pitch control provided by symmetric operation of foreplanes and wing flaperons; roll control primarily by differential operation of flaperons; yaw control by rudder. Cross-feeds between controls to optimise performance and handling qualities provide artificial longitudinal stability; yaw control via rudder; no manual reversion.
STRUCTURE: Fuselage, wings (including inboard flaperons), wing-fuselage fairings, fin and rudder mainly of CFC (carbon fibre composites) except for foreplanes, outboard flaperons and exhaust nozzle fairings (titanium); nose radome and fintip (GFRP); leading-edge slats, wingtip pods, fin base, fin, leading-edge, rudder trailing-edge, cockpit side strake and canopy-to-airbrake fairing (aluminium-lithium alloy); and canopy surround (aluminium). CFC constitutes 70 per cent of surface area, with metal 15 per cent, GFRP 12 per cent and other materials 3 per cent. Manufacture includes such advanced techniques as superplastic forming and diffusion bonding; EADS CASA-led joint structures team. On development aircraft (only) UK responsible for front fuselage, foreplanes, starboard leading-edge slats and flaperons; Germany the centre fuselage and fin, Italy the port wing, port leading-edge and flaperons, and stages 2 and 3 of rear fuselage; Spain the rear fuselage stage 1; and Spain and UK the starboard wing; no duplication of tooling.
Work-share on production aircraft involves UK for front fuselage, canards, windscreen, canopy, dorsal fairing inboard flaperons, fin and rear fuselage stage 1; Germany for centre-fuselage; Italy for port wing, outboard flaperons and rear fuselage stages 2 and 3; and Spain for starboard wing and leading-edge slats. Assembly at Casselle (Italy), Getafe (Spain), Manching (Germany) and Warton (UK).
LANDING GEAR: Dowty Aerospace retractable tricycle type with SICAMB mainwheels and Magnaghi/OMA nose gear; Dunlop Aviation wheels, brakes and braking system; Ultra Electronics landing gear computer. Single-wheel main units retract inward into fuselage; nosewheel unit forward. Nosewheel steering is subfunction of DFCS. Tyre sizes 28x9.5R15 main; 18x7.75R6 nose. Elektro Metall braking parachute at base of fin.
POWER PLANT: Two Eurojet EJ200 advanced technology turbofans (each of approximately 60 kN; 13,490 lb st dry and 90 kN; 20,250 lb nominal thrust with afterburning), mounted side by side in rear fuselage with ventral intakes. EJ200-01A initially ; -1C for early flight tests; -03A first flown June 1997 (DA5); -03B followed in late 1998; and 03Z in December 1999. Staged EJ200 improvements available (but not funded) to 103 kN (23,155 lb st) (designated EJ230) and then 117 kN (26,300 lb st). MTU FADEC. Lucas Aerospace fuel management system; Aeroquip GmbH fuel ducts; Autoflug sensors; Teldix flowmeters; VDO computer and gauges; Smiths fuel measurement system. First two development aircraft originally powered by two Turbo-Union RB199-122 (Mk 104E) afterburning turbofans (each more than 71.2 kN; 16,000 lb st). Both were retrofitted with EJ200s in 1998.
Internal fuel capacity classified, but believed to total approximately 5,700 litres (1,506 US gallons; 1,254 Imp gallons) in two fuselage tanks and two integral wing tanks. Two-seat trainer lacks forward transfer tank, but partly offsets loss of capacity with auxiliary tank in the enlarged spine. Pressure refuelling point below fuselage, immediately behind air intake. Provision for in-flight refuelling and up to three suspended, external fuel tanks; two 1,000 litre (264 US gallon; 220 Imp gallon) or 2,000 litre (528 US gallon; 440 Imp gallon) underwing, plus one 1,000 litre (264 US gallon; 220 Imp gallon) centreline tank. Only the smaller tanks are rated for supersonic flight.
In early 1998 UK was reported to be designing upper fuselage conformal tanks to increase combat radius to 1,500 n miles (2,778 km; 1,726 miles); work subcontracted to GKN Engage in Australia. Wind tunnel trials of conformal tanks completed May 2002, size 1,500 litres (396 US gallons; 330 Imp gallons) each, providing for additional total of 2,400 kg (5,291 lb) of fuel, for 25 per cent range increase. Conformal tanks can be installed or removed in 75 minutes. Tranche 2 aircraft have structural and piping modifications to accept conformal tanks.
ACCOMMODATION: Pilot(s) on Martin-Baker Mk 16A zero/zero ejection seat(s). Single-piece Aerospace Composite windscreen and single-piece, rear-hinged on both versions. Optional liquid-cooled vest for pilot. Helmet-mounted display. Anti-g trousers augmented by pressure breathing system. Two equipment/baggage stowage bays, each 0.01 m³ (0.35 cu ft), above air intakes, port and starboard.
SYSTEMS: Responsibility for systems delegated to Eurofighter Gmbh; participants are UK for electrics, Spain for environmental control and Germany for hydraulics.
Flight control system combines stability and control augmentation; good handling characteristics; high agility; and carefree handling, while incorporating safety features such as low-speed automatic recovery, emergency g override, g onset limitation, disorientation recovery capability and automatic reversion. System is controlled by four computers and features primary and secondary actuation. FCS features automatic revision through various back-up modes and is integrated with other systems through avionics (STANAG 3910) and utilities control (STANAG 3838) databusses. FCS software updated to Phase 2 in late 1995. Phase 2A 'carefree' handling throughout the subsonic flight envelope, including 25° AoA and over +6 g (cleared by DA2 in January 1998); Phase 2B allows carriage of heavy stores and comprises 2B1 (flown April 1999) for 28° AoA and +7.25 g, and 2B2 for 30-35° and 9 g (first flown 7 July 2000). Phase 3 is IOC standard in 2001 (9g envelope), DA2, DA4 and DA6 receiving Phase 3R1 in that year; Phase 4 covers air-to-surface weapons; and full combat capability Phase 5. FCS incorporates auto-recovery mode ('panic button') for immediate return to straight-and-level flight in emergency. Ada language, apart from time-critical subroutines in Assembler.
Electrical system has Lucas Aerospace as leading supplier and is designed to minimise risk of total power loss by using high level of redundancy and by system positioning. Engine start, systems test, avionics activation and alignment, need no external power. Elements include ZF accessories drive gearbox, two AC and two DC engine-driven Hamilton Sundstrand generators, Honeywell APU in forward port wingroot, Varta battery in corresponding starboard position, two Ferranti Technologies transformer/rectifier units and power converter from same company.
Environmental control system (ECS), with Normalair Garrett as leading supplier, provides conditioned and partly conditioned air to cockpit canopy seal, anti- and de-misting, pilot's anti-g clothing, radar, FLIR, avionics and general equipment. Main oxygen provided by molecular sieve generation system (MSOGS). Precooler (at base of fin), heat exchanger, cold air unit and MSOG all located in aircraft's spine. Liquid cooling subsystem (LCSS) connects aircrew vest to ECS.
Hydraulic system (Magnaghi as leading supplier) comprises two independent circuits supplying power to flight control system (Dowty Boulton Paul actuators), landing gear (including nosewheel steering and brakes), port and starboard utilities, gun, canopy, airbrake and refuelling probe.
Utilities control system is integrated within overall system architecture and provides for continuous monitoring and fault detection, comprising front computer, fuel computer, secondary power system computer, landing gear computer and maintenance data panel. Integrated monitoring and recording system constantly checks status of all other systems, airframe and engine, to provide rapid, onboard fault diagnosis; functions include crash-survivable memory, bulk storage device, video-voice recording, mission data loading and portable data store, maintenance data panel, portable maintenance data store and air-to-ground relay of data.
AVIONICS: BAE Systems has overall team leadership for avionics development and integration. All avionics, flight control and utilities control systems integrated through STANAG 3910 databus highways with appropriate redundancy levels, using fibre optics and microprocessors. Some functions activated by direct voice input, with 100 word vocabulary.
Comms: Rohde & Schwarz or Elmer VHF/UHF communications, both secure and non-secure. BAE video and voice recorder. EADS and Cossor IFF; BAE antennas.
Radar: Euroradar ECR 90 Captor coherent, multimode, pulse-Doppler radar.
Flight: Smiths mission data loader and radar altimeter. Litton laser INS/GPS; Marconi SpA microwave landing system, plus ILS and differential global navigation satellite system; BAE Systems TERPROM and ground proximity warning; Tacan; provision for terrain reference navigation; Elmer SpA crash survival memory unit.
Instrumentation: Special attention given to reducing pilot workload. New cockpit techniques simplify safe and effective operation to limits of flight envelope while monitoring and managing aircraft and its operational systems, and detecting/identifying/attacking desired targets while remaining safe from enemy defences. This achieved through high level of system integration and automation, including HOTAS controls; BAE wide-angle (30° azimuth; 25° elevation) HUD able to display, in addition to other symbology, FLIR pictures from PIRATE sensor mounted externally to port side of cockpit; helmet-mounted sight (HMS), with helmet tracking system and Smiths Aerospace girect voice input (DVI) for appropriate functions; and three Smiths Industries multifunction head-down colour CRT displays (MHDD) and Smiths glareshield standby displays. EADS, EDS Defence and CANAVA digital map generator; Teldix cockpit interface unit.
Mission: Alenia and Computing Devices nav/attack computers. Eurofirst (FIAR consortium) PIRATE (Passive Infra-Red Airborne Tracking Equipment) port side of windscreen. Secure MIDS datalink. RAF aircraft to have optional reconnaissance capability with a long-range electro-optical pod, for which SR(A) 1368 was issued in 1995.
Self-defence: Advanced integrated defensive aids subsystem (DASS), contracted to Euro-DASS consortium, led by BAE Systems and including Indra (Spain) and Elettronica (Italy); includes RWR and active jamming pod at each wingtip, laser warning receiver (each side, adjacent to windscreen), missile approach warning (wing leading-edges, inboard, and at rear base of fin), Elettronica Aster/GAMESA/CelsiusTech expendables (flares in flap actuator fairings; chaff in aileron actuator fairings) and towed radar decoys. (Germany initially did not joint Euro-DASS, but is now to adopt standard equipment, with contract awarded October 2001). Two BAE Systems radar decoys in the starboard wingtip pod, each on a 100 m (320 ft) fibre optic cable. Italy considering Cross Eye ECM system as alternative to towed decoy. Spain also declined to join Euro-DASS, but is now participating; UK and Spain are only nations to have LWR. Initial contract for 103 systems placed June 2001; to be augmented by German requirement and addition of EADS to consortium.
EQUIPMENT: Hella lighting; Logic anti-collision beacons.
ARMAMENT: Total of 13 external stores stations: five (including one wet) under fuselage and four (including one wet) under each wing. Internally mounted 27 mm Mauser gun on starboard side with 150 rounds.
Planned weapons (with maximum load in parentheses) include:
Air-to-air: Meteor (six), AIM-120 AMRAAM (six), ERAAM (six), FMRAAM (six), AIM-9L Sidewinder (six), ASRAAM (six) and IRIS-T (six).
Air-to-air: ALARM (six), Penguin (four), Harpoon (four), Brimstone (18), Taurus, Storm Shadow, GBU-10 (four), GBU-16 (four), Paveway III (three), CRV-7 (four pods of 19 rockets each), 500 lb bombs (12), and reduced quantity of larger weapons up to 2,000 lb Mk 84 (four).
Typical weapon combinations for specific roles could include the following:
Air superiority: Six BVRAAMs, two SRAAMs, internal cannon, plus two 2,000 litre and one 1,000 litre external fuel tanks.
Interdictor/Strike: Two cruise missiles; four BVRAAMs, internal cannon plus two 2,000 litre and one 1,000 litre tanks.
Defence suppression: Six ARMs, four BVRAAMs, two SRAAMs, internal cannon and centreline 1,000 litre tank.
Multirole: Two Paveway LGBs, two ARMs, three BVRAAMs, two SRAAMs, internal cannon, laser designation pod and two 2,000 litre and one 1,000 litre tanks.
Close air support: Eighteen Brimstones, four BVRAAMs, two SRAAMs, internal cannon and one 1,000 litre centreline tank.
Maritime attack: Six ASMs, four BVRAAMs, two SRAAMs, internal cannon and one 1,000 litre centreline tank.