Spanish Air Force designations: T.19A and T.19B

TYPE: Twin-turboprop transport.

PROGRAMME: Launched as joint venture between CASA and Indonesian manufacturer IPTN (now Dirgantara), which formed Airtech company to manage programme. Series 10 and Series 100/110 versions covered by this agreement; subsequent versions, notwithstanding Indonesian Series 220 and 330 equivalents, stated by CASA to be wholly Spanish.
Preliminary design began January 1980, prototype construction May 1981; one prototype completed in each country, with simultaneous roll-outs 10 September 1983; first flights 11 November 1983 (by CASA's ECT-100) and 30 December 1983 (IPTN's PK-XNC); Spanish and Indonesian certification 20 June 1986; first flight of production aircraft 19 August 1986; FAA type approval (FAR Pts 25 and 121) 3 December 1986; deliveries began 15 December 1986 from IPTN line and 4 February 1987 from CASA; entered service (with Merpati Nusantara Airlines) 1 March 1988; JAR 25 type approval October 1993.
Licence agreement with TAI announced January 1990, initially to assemble and later to manufacture locally 50 of 52 ordered; first flight of Turkish-assembled aircraft 24 September 1992; first delivery 13 November 1992; final air force delivery 10 August 1998, but TAI subsequently produced follow-on batch of nine maritime patrol variants and may build further 10 for maritime missions.
In 1995, CASA unilaterally launched development of a stretched CN-235, as C-295.

CURRENT VERSIONS: CN-235 Series 10: Initial production version (15 built by each company), with CT7-7A engines.
CN-235 Series 100/110: Generally as Series 10, but CT7-9C engines in new composites nacelles; replaced Series 10 in 1988 from 31st production aircraft. Series 100 is Spanish-built and, following JAA certification, was certified by FAA in February 1992. Series 110 is Indonesian-built, with improved electrical, warning and environmental systems to comply with JAR 25; certification of this version achieved in Europe (JAA), July 1995.
Detailed description applies to the above version except where indicated.
CN-235 Series 200/220: Structural reinforcements to cater for higher operating weights, aerodynamic improvements to wing leading-edges and rudder, reduced field length requirements and much-increased range with maximum payload; Series 200 is Spanish-built and was certified by FAA March 1992. Series 220 is Indonesian-built, with improvements similar to Srs 110; prototype, flown early 1996, is converted from a company development aircraft (PK-XNV, the 20th production aircraft from the Indonesian line); orders include six for Malaysian Air Force, all of which completed to Srs 220 standard (including three in maritime patrol configuration) by early 1998 (34th to 39th Indonesian-built). Revised leading-edge shape led to requirement to requalify pneumatic de-icer boots, delaying initial deliveries. Further orders for Series 220 from South Korea (eight, including one for VIP use and one for VVIP use) and Pakistan (four).
CN-235 Series 300/330: IPTN originally offered Series 330 Phoenix (with new Honeywell avionics, ARL-2002 EW system and 16,800 kg; 37,037 lb MTOW) to Royal Australian Air Force to meet Project Air 5190 tactical airlift requirement, but was forced by financial constraints to withdraw in 1998. Separately, CASA offered its own Series 300 to meet the same specification.
CN-235 Series 300 under certification in 2000 with an open-systems avionics architacture, based on MIL-STD-1553B and ARINC 429 digital databusses. Full NVG-compatible cockpit; four-dimensional navigation system with avionics suite, including Thales (Sextant) Topdeck colour weather radar, radios, solid-state flight data and cockpit voice recorders, enhanced TCAS, enhanced GPWS and four 152 x 203 mm (6 x 8 in) LCDs; twin HUDs and Totem 3000 ring laser gyro INS optional. Other features include in-flight refuelling capability, improved pressurisation (2,440 m; 8,000 ft cabin environment at 7,620 m; 25,000 ft) and provision for optional twin nosewheel installation to provide better soft-field taxying capability.
CN-235 AEW: Proposals were revealed in December 1995 for fitment of an Ericsson Erieye electronically scanned phased-array radar above the fuselage of a CN-235. Initial interest was from the Indonesian Air Force, but primarily in the ocean surveillance role; retrofit of three existing aircraft was considered, but has not been undertaken. Radar, three surveillance operator's positions and associated equipment increase aircraft weight by approximately 2,000 kg (4,409 lb).
CN-235ER: Extended-range version (based on Series 300) originally selected by US Coast Guard in 2002 as fixed-wing element of Project Deepwater re-equipment programme, but subsequently shelved in favour of the basic CN-235 Series 300M. At time of announcement, in June 2002, it was revealed that total of 35 aircraft would be purchased. Firm order for initial batch of six aircraft anticipated in mid-2002, but still awaited in mid-2003, although FY03 budget included US$147 million appropriation for first two aircraft to be delivered in 2006. Will feature EADS CASA Fully Integrated Tactical System (FITS).
CN-235 M: Other military transport versions.
CN-235 MP Persuader and CN-235 MPA: Maritime patrol versions; described separately.
CN-235 QC: Quick-change cargo/passenger version; certified by Spanish DGAC May 1992.
CN-245: Indonesian stretched version; not build.
C-295: Spanish stretched version; described separately.
N2XXM: Project abandoned.

CUSTOMERS: One (s/n 66049) acquired (presumably second-hand) by USAF in 1998. Turkey signed a lease agreement on 16 April 1999 to allow a one-year renewable lease of two Turkish Air Force CN-235s to Jordan. Switzerland leased a Spanish Air Force CN-235 in 1999 to support peacekeeping operations in the former Yugoslavia. Three Merpati aircraft leased to Air Venezuela from May 1999; three leased to Asian Spirit Airlines, Philippines, from March 2000, including two on lease-purchase. Intention to buy a further two announced by Papua New Guinea in mid-1998. National Jet Systems of Australia interested in two coastal patrol variants; signed MoU for possible acquisition of two, plus five options, February 1998. One CN-235-300 (first of this subvariant in service) leased by Austrian Ministry of Defence for six months from April 2000. CN-235 is contender in Taiwanese requirement for 18 to 22 light transport, and for the US Army Airborne Common Sensor platform requirement. Winner of US Coast Guard Project Deepwater competition, with total of 35 aircraft to be acquired.

COSTS: US$17.1 million (2002) programme unit cost, Malaysia.

DESIGN FEATURES: Optimised for short-haul operations, enabling it to fly four 860 n mile (1,593 km; 990 mile) stage lengths (with reserves) before refuelling and to operate from paved runways or unprepared strips; high-mounted wing; pressurised fuselage (including baggage compartment) of flattened circular cross-section, with upswept rear end incorporating cargo ramp/door; sweptback fin (with dorsal fin) and rudder; low-set non-swept fixed incidence tailplane and elevators; two small ventral fins; vortex generators on rudder and elevator leading-edges; optional extended nose radome.
NACA 653-218 aerofoil with no-dihedral/constant chord centre-section; tapered outer panels have 3° dihedral and 3° 51' 36" sweepback at quarter-chord.

FLYING CONTROLS: Conventional and manual. Ailerons, elevators and rudder statically and dynamically balanced (duplicated actuation for ailerons); mechanical servo tab and electric trim tab in each aileron, rudder and starboard elevator, trim tab only in port elevator; single-slotted inboard and outboard trailing-edge flaps (each pair interchangeable port/starboard), actuated hydraulically by Dowty irreversible jacks.

STRUCTURE: Conventional semi-monocoque, mainly of aluminium alloys with chemically milled skins; composites (mainly glass fibre or glass fibre/Nomex honeycomb sandwich, with some carbon fibre and Kevlar) for leading/trailing-edges of wing/tail moving surfaces, wing/fuselage and main landing gear fairings, wing/fin/tailplane tips, engine nacelles, ventral fins and nose radome. Propeller blades are of glass fibre, with metal spar and urethane foam core.
CASA builds wing centre-section, inboard flaps, forward and centre fuselage, engine nacelles; Dirgantara builds outer wings, outboard flaps, ailerons, rear fuselage and tail unit; both manufacturers use numerical control machinery extensively. Final assembly line in each country. Part of tail unit built by ENAER Chile under subcontract from CASA. TAI (Turkey) initially assembled under licence before progressing gradually to local manufacture of balance of 50 aircraft for Turkish Air Force.

LANDING GEAR: Messier-Bugatti retractable tricycle type with levered suspension, suitable for operation from semi-prepared runways. Electrically controlled hydraulic extension/retraction, with mechanical back-up for emergency extension. Oleo-pneumatic shock-absorber in each unit. Each main unit comprises two wheels in tandem, retracting rearward into fairing on side of fuselage. Mainwheels semi-exposed when retracted. Single steerable nosewheel (±48°) retracts forward into unpressurised bay under flight deck. Dunlop 28x9.00-12 (12 ply) tubeless mainwheel tyres standard, pressure 5.17 bar (75 lb/sq in) on civil version, 5.58 bar (81 lb/sq in) on military version; low-pressure mainwheel tyres optional, size 11.00-12 (10 ply), pressure 3.45 bar (50 lb/sq in). Dunlop 24x7.7 (10/12 ply) tubeless nosewheel tyre, pressure 5.65 bar (82 lb/sq in) on civil version, 6.07 bar (88 lb/sq in) on military version; optional 8.50x10 (12 ply). Dunlop hydraulic differential disc brakes; Dunlop anti-skid units on main gear. Chilean Army aircraft used in Antarctic have wheel/ski gear. Minimum ground turning radius 9.50 m (31 ft 2 in) about nosewheel, 18.98 m (62 ft 3¼ in) about wingtip.

POWER PLANT: Two General Electric CT7-9C turboprops (CT7-9C3 in Srs 300), each flat rated at 1,305 kW (1,750 shp) (S/L, to 41°C) for take-off and 1,394.5 kW (1,870 shp) up to 31°C with automatic power reserve. Hamilton Sundstrand 14RF-21 (14RF-37 in Srs 300) four-blade constant-speed propellers, with full feathering and reverse-pitch capability. Fuel in two 1,042 litre (275 US gallon; 229 Imp gallon) integral main tanks in wing centre-section and two 1,592 litre (421 US gallon; 350 Imp gallon) integral outer-wing auxiliary tanks; total fuel capacity 5,264 litres (1,391 US gallons; 1,158 Imp gallons), of which 5,128 litres (1,355 US gallons; 1,128 Imp gallons) are usable. Single pressure refuelling point in starboard main landing gear fairing; gravity filling point in top of each tank. Propeller braking permits No. 2 engine to be used as on-ground APU. Oil capacity 14 litres (3.7 US gallons; 3.1 Imp gallons).

ACCOMMODATION: Crew of two on flight deck, plus cabin attendant (civil version) or third crew member (military version). Accommodation in commuter version for up to 44 passengers in four-abreast seating, at 76 cm (30 in) pitch, with 22 seats each side of central aisle. Lavatory, galley and overhead luggage bins standard. Pressurised baggage compartment at rear of cabin, aft of movable bulkhead; additional stowage in rear ramp area and in overhead lockers. Can also be equipped as mixed passengers/cargo combi (for example, 19 passengers and two LD3 containers), or for all-cargo operation, with roller loading system, carrying four standard LD3 containers, five LD2s, or two 2.24 x 3.18 m (88 x 125 in) and one 2.24 x 2.03 m (88 x 80 in) pallets; or for military duties, carrying up to 57 fully equipped troops or 46 paratroops (51 troops or paratroops on Srs 300). Other options include layouts for aeromedical airlift (18 stretchers and two medical attendants on Srs 300), electronic warfare, geophysical survey or aerial photographic duties.
Main passenger door, outward- and forward-opening with integral stairs, aft of wing on port side, serving also as Type I emergency exit. Type III emergency exit facing this door on starboard side. Crew/service downward-opening door (forward, starboard) has built-in stairs, and serves also as a Type I emergency exit, or as passenger door in combi version; second Type III exit opposite this door on port side. Wide ventral door/cargo ramp in underside of upswept rear fuselage, for loading of bulky cargo. Accommodation fully air conditioned and pressurised.

SYSTEMS: Hamilton Sundstrand air conditioning system, using engine compressor bleed air. Honeywell electropneumatic pressurisation system (maximum differential 0.25 bar; 3.6 lb/sq in) giving cabin environment of 2,440 m (8,000 ft) up to operating altitude of 5,480 (18,000 ft) on Srs 200; Srs 300 cabin pressurisation increased to 0.38 bar (5.5 lb/sq in), giving cabin environment of 2,350 m (7,700 ft) at altitude of 7,620 m (25,000 ft). Hydraulic system, operating at nominal pressure of 207 bar (3,000 lb/sq in), comprises two engine-driven, variable displacement axial electric pumps, a self-pressurising standby mechanical pump, and a modular unit incorporating connectors, filters and valves; system is employed for actuation of wing flaps, landing gear extension/retraction, wheel brakes, emergency and parking brakes, nosewheel steering, cargo ramp and door, and propeller braking. Accumulator for back-up braking system.
28 V DC primary electrical system powered by two 400 A Auxilec engine-driven starter/generators, with two 24 V 37 Ah Ni/Cd batteries for engine starting and 30 minutes' (minimum) emergency power for essential services. Constant frequency single-phase AC power (115/26 V) provided at 400 Hz by three 600 VA static inverters (two for normal operation plus one standby); two three-phase engine-driven alternators for 115/200 V variable frequency AC power. Fixed oxygen installation for crew of three (single cylinder at 124 bar; 1,800 lb/sq in pressure); three portable units and individual masks for passengers.
Pneumatic boot anti-icing of wing (outboard of engine nacelles), fin and tailplane leading-edges. Electric anti-icing of propellers, engine air intakes, flight deck windscreen, pilot tubes and angle of attack indicators. No APU: starboard engine, with propeller braking, can be used to fulfil this function. Engine fire detection and extinguishing system.

AVIONICS (civil): Comms: Two Rockwell Collins VHF-22B com radios, one Avtech DADS crew interphone, Rockwell Collins TDR-90 ATC transponder. Fairchild A-100A cockpit voice recorder, Avtech PACIS PA system. Dorne & Margolin ELT 8-1 emergency transmitter. Optional second TDR-90; optional HF-230 radio.
Radar: Rockwell Collins WXR-300 weather radar.
Flight: Two VIR-32 VOR/ILS/marker beacon receivers; DME-42; ADF-60A; two 332D-11T vertical gyros; two MCS-65 directional gyros; two ADI-85A; two HSI-85; two RMI-36; APS-65 autopilot/flight director; ALT-55B radio altimeter; two 345A-7 rate of turn sensors (all by Rockwell Collins); SFENA H-301 APM standby attitude director indicator; Hamilton Sundstrand Mk II GPWS; and Fairchild/Teledyne flight data recorder. Options include second DME-42 and ADF-60A, Rockwell Collins RNS-325 radar nav, Litton LTN-72R inertial nav or Global GNS-500A Omega navigation system.
Instrumentation: Rockwell Collins EFIS-85B five-tube CRT system standard.

AVIONICS (military) (Indonesian aircraft): Comms: Rockwell Collins AN/ARC-182 VHF/UHF; Rockwell Collins HF 9000 HF; IFF.
Flight: Rockwell Collins VIR-32 VHF nav; Litton LTN92 GPS-aided INS; Rockwell Collins DF-206A ADF; Rockwell Collins AN/APS-65F autopilot; GPWS.
Instrumentation: Rockwell Collins EFIS-85B(14) EFIS (four or five screens). IPTN developing cockpit lighting system compatible with night vision goggles.

AVIONICS (military): Series 300: Thales Avionics Topdeck suite (see Current Versions) as core system.
Flight: Twin ADU 3000 air data units, GPSs and AHRSs; radar altimeter; TCAS; GPWS; weather radar; optional Totem 3000 LINS, Cat. II landing capability, MLS and satcom.
Instrumentation: Four 152 x 203 mm (6 x 8 in) LCDs; optional HUDs. Optional electro-optical sensors display imagery on LCDs. NVG compatibility.
Mission: Four-dimensional navigation FMS calculates high-altitude and computed air release points for load-dropping.

EQUIPMENT: Navigation lights, anti-collision strobe lights, 600 W landing light in front end of each main landing gear fairing, taxying lights, ice inspection lights, emergency door lights, flight deck and flight deck emergency lights, cabin and baggage compartment lights, individual passenger reading lights, and instrument panel white lighting, all standard. Hand-type fire extinguishers on flight deck (one) and in passenger cabin (two); smoke detector in baggage compartment.

ARMAMENT (military version): Three attachment points under each wing. Weapons can include Harpoon anti-ship missiles; Indonesian MPA version can be fitted with two Mk 46 torpedoes or AM 39 Exocet anti-shipping missiles.