English name: Swan
TYPE: Primary prop trainer/sportplane.
PROGRAMME: Developed under agreement with Indian National Aerospace Laboratories and originally known as NALLA: NAL Light Aircraft. Design started May 1989; construction of Hansa-2 prototype began December 1991, and this aircraft (VT-XIW) made first flight 23 November 1993. Prototype received Indian DGCA Experimental category type certificate; re-engined 1995 as Hansa-2RE with more powerful IO-240 replacing original 74.6 kW (100 hp) O-200 flat-four. Retired to HAL's museum after 128 hours of flying. Deliveries of production Hansa-3s began on 20 March 2001. Hansa manufacturing techniques being transferred to external agencies, beginning 28 August 2002 when Reinforced Plastics Industries, Bangalore, initiated manufacture of two composites fuselage shells.
In early 2002, NAL was in the early stages of designing a 'stretched' Hansa with between four and six seats.
CURRENT VERSIONS: Hansa-2: Prototype in original configuration.
Hansa-2RE: Prototype (VT-XIW) re-engined with 93 kW (125 hp) IO-240B; span increased and flaps added; first flight 26 January 1996.
Hansa-3: Production version of Hansa-2RE, first flown (VT-XAL; designated Hansa-31) on 25 November 1996. First flight with Rotax 914 F3 engine, 11 May 1998, made by second (and lighter) prototype VT-XBL (designated Hansa-3II); provisional JAR-VLA certification awarded to 'XBL in December 1998 in day VFR category. Current version (prototype VT-NHS) has lightning protection for night operations; made first flight 14 May 1999 and received DGCA certification on 1 February 2000 under FAR Pt 23, Amendment 23-42 (JAR-VLA night operation requirements).
Hansa-4: Four-seat version, powered by SMA SR305-230 diesel; engine for prototype due for delivery in late 2003; production start targeted for late 2004.
Following description applies to this version.
CUSTOMERS: Four prototypes, including Hansa-2, of which VT-HNS handed over on 22 March 2002 for use by Department of Aerospace Engineering, IIT Kanpur.
Three Hansa-3s ordered by DGCA for Indian flying clubs (VH-HNT, 'HNU and 'HNV), of which first handed over to DGCA on 20 March 2001, then presented to Andhra Pradesh Aviation Academy on 12 April 2001 and delivered to Hyderabad on 8 May 2001. Second and third to DGCA on 22 March 2002, of which 'NU to Kerala Aviation Training Centre. Fourth Hansa-3 (VH-NHW) flown 30 March 2003 and destined for Trivandrum Flying Club.
COSTS: Programme development US$40 million (1997); standard aircraft Rs4.5 million (2001).
DESIGN FEATURES: Docile handling qualities for ab initio training; robust construction and acquisition/operating cost. Low-wing monoplane with circular-section waisted fuselage; outer wings tapered on leading-edges, with unswept trailing-edge; sweptback fin and rudder; shallow ventral strake; conventional unswept, straight-tapered horizontal tail surfaces.
Laminar-flow wing, with NASA LS(1)-0415 aerofoil section on constant-chord inboard portion, linearly tapered to LS(1)-0413 from there to tip; sweepback 12° 18' 36" on outer leading-edges; dihedral 4° from roots; incidence 0°; twist 0° between root and kink; washout -2° between kink and tip.
FLYING CONTROLS: Conventional and manual. Frise ailerons (100 per cent internal mass balance); horn-balanced plain elevators and large rudder, all actuated by pushrods; pitch trim by electrically operated tab in port elevator. Single-slotted Fowler flaps, deflection 20°.
STRUCTURE: Built entirely of composites (CFRP/GFRP reinforced epoxy) with hand-laid, vacuum-bagged, room temperature-cured sandwich shells; components are post-cured before assembly. Conventional rib and three-spar wings, with moulded sandwich shell and PVC foam core; two-spar tail surfaces similar. Fuselage is also a moulded sandwich shell with PVC foam core.
LANDING GEAR: Non-retractable tricycle type, with cantilever steel spring mainwheel legs and steerable (±33o) nosewheel. Cleveland wheels and McCreary tyres (main 6.00-6, nose 5.00-5), pressure 2.07 bar (30 lb/sq in) on all units. Cleveland hydraulic disc brakes. Minimum ground turning radius 2.64 m (8 ft 8 in).
POWER PLANT:One 84.6 kW (113.4 hp at 5,800 rpm) Rotax 914 F3 turbocharged flat-four engine; Hoffmann NOV 352FQ+8 two-blade constant-speed propeller. Single composites fuel tank aft of cockpit, usable capacity 85 litres (22.5 US gallons; 18.7 Imp gallons). Single gravity refuelling point on top of fuselage, port side. Oil capacity 3 litres (0.8 US gallon; 0.7 Imp gallon).
ACCOMMODATION: Two seats side by side; dual controls standard. Upward-opening gullwing doors. Baggage compartment aft of pilot's seat.
SYSTEMS: Manual (toe-operated) hydraulic mainwheel brakes. Electrical (DC) system powered by 14 V, 40 A generator and 12 V, 18 Ah Gill G25M lead-acid battery.
AVIONICS: Comms: Bendix/King KLX 125 combined VHF/VOR com/nav unit with concealed foil antennas; ACK Technologies E-01 ELT; Clark intercom.
Flight: Optional GPS.
Instrumentation: Conventional VFR (IFR version planned). For day operations: ASI, VSI, altimeter, magnetic compass, slip/skid indicator and OAT gauge. For night operations: artificial horizon, directional gyro, turn co-ordinator, navigation lights, landing lights, anti-collision lights, panel and map lights.