Canadian Forces designations: CC-144, CC-144B and CE-144A

TYPE: Business jet.

PROGRAMME: First flight of first of three prototypes (C-GCGR-X) 8 November 1978; first flight production Challenger 600 with AlliedSignal ALF 502L-2 turbofans 21 September 1979; first customer delivery 30 December 1980; first flight Challenger 601 with GE CF34s 10 April 1982; first 601-1A delivered 6 May 1983; first 601-3A 6 May 1987 and first 601-3A/ER 19 May 1989; first 601-3R 14 july 1993; first 604 25 January 1996. Challenger certified for operation in 40 countries by 1998. By 31 December 2002 the Challenger fleet and flown 2,300,000 hours, with a despatch reliability of 99.7 per cent. 500th Challenger rolled out 'green' 25 May 2000 and handed over (as N816CC) 1 September 2000; 600th was undergoing interior outfitting in March 2003.

CURRENT VERSIONS: Challenger 600: Total 84 built after certification in 1980 (76 since retrofitted with winglets); 12 delivered to Canadian Department of National Defence as CC-144 (three) and CE-144A (three), plus three for coastal patrol, two for general transport and one test aircraft. Production completed with final delivery on 22 June 1983.
Challenger 601-1A: First production version to have CF34 engines; first flight 17 September 1982. Deliveries (66, including four CC-144Bs) between 6 May 1983 and 29 May 1987.
Challenger 601-3A: Version with 'glass' cockpit and CF34-3A engines; first flight 28 September 1986; Canadian and US certification 21 and 30 April 1987; also certified for Cat. II and in 22 other countries; improvements include CF34-3A engines flat rated to 21°C, and fully integrated digital flight guidance and flight management systems. Total of 134 delivered between 6 May 1987 and 29 October 1993.
Challenger 601-3R: Extended-range option available on new 601-3As since 1989 (c/n 5135 and onwards) and as retrofit to 601-1As and 601-3As; range increased to 3,585 n miles (6,639 km; 4,125 miles) with NBAA IFR reserves; first flight 8 November 1988; Canadian certification 16 March 1989; tail fairing replaced with conformal tailcone fuel tank which extends fuselage length by 46 cm (1 ft 6 in) and adds 118 kg (260 lb) to operating weight empty; maximum ramp weight increased by 680 kg (1,500 lb). Optional gross weight increase of 227 kg (500 lb). Total of 92 modification kits supplied between March 1989 and October 1993. Challenger 601-3ER, incorporating extended-range modifications, CF34-3A1 engines and 20,457 kg ((45,100 lb) max T-O weight, was standard production version from 14 July 1993 (first delivery); 59 new-build aircraft delivered by early 1996; no further production.
Challenger 604: Has range of 4,077 n miles (7,550 km; 4,691 miles) at M0.74 and is powered by General Electric CF34-3B engines each rated at 38.8 kN (8,729 lb st) T-O power at ISA +15°C. Prototype (C-FTBZ) modified on the production line from a Challenger 601-3R; engineering designation CL-600-2B16; first flight (with CF34-3A engines) 18 September 1994; first flight with definitive CF34-3B engines 17 March 1995. Exploits systems developed in Regional Jet programme. Rockwell Collins Pro Line 4 EFIS; extra 1,242 litres (328 US gallons; 273 Imp gallons) of fuel in aft equipment bay, forward fuselage tank and tail tank. Automatic aft-CG control to reduce trim drag for longer range. New landing gear, carbon brakes and anti-skid system; strengthened tail unit; new wing-to-fuselage and underbelly fairings. Maximum T-O weight 21,863 kg (48,200 lb). Transport Canada certification achieved 20 September 1995; FAA certification 2 November 1995; 100th delivery to a customer was made in mid-1999.
From June 2001, Challenger 604s have been delivered with upgraded PrecisionPlus Collins Pro Line 4 avionics, intended to reduce pilot workload and make the aircraft more compatible with future air traffic environments. Standard PrecisionPlus features include automatic look-up and display of take-off, approach, landing and missed-approach speeds, eliminating the need to refer to manual charts; automatic look-up and display of thrust setting (N1) for take-off, climb, cruise and go-around; blending of actual observed wind and entered wind to improve the prediction of flight time and fuel requirements; position reporting in non-radar environments such as the North Atlantic; improved polar navigation, enabling the crew to navigate and steer the aircraft at latitudes over 89°; full-time DME reporting on the pilot's MFD; EICAS improvements including the addition of metric fuel indication capability, logic enhancements and FMS performance enhancements; and full integration with the Flight Dynamics HUD and Safe Flight AutoPower autothrottle system. Optional features include flight plan map feature providing an intuitive, three-dimensional graphic representation of the programmed flight plan and predicted flight path for the pilot's and co-pilot's MFDs; long-range cruise feature allowing pilots to select a cruise speed computed by the FMS for either maximum range or maximum speed; search pattern feature offering automatic generation of waypoints; and expanded FDR to meet FAA FAR Pt 135.152 requirements. The PrecisionPlus avionics upgrade is also available for retrofit to earlier Challenger 604s.
Max-Viz EVS-1000 enhanced vision system received FAA certification on 13 March 2003 for installation on Challengers.
Detailed description applies to Challenger 604.
Special Missions: One Challenger 604 delivered in late 2000 to (South) Korean National Maritime Police with unspecified sensor and communications suite. First of two maritime surveillance 604s entered service with Royal Danish Air Force in late 2002.

CUSTOMERS: See under individual headings in Current Versions. More than 600 Challengers of all versions delivered (including to completion centres) by 31 December 2003, including 262 Challenger 604s. Recent customers include the Royal Jordanian Air Force, which ordered two in VIP configuration for delivery during 2000; the Australian government, which ordered three on 16 August 2000 for delivery in 2001 to Qantas Airways, which operates them on behalf of the Royal Australian Air Force for transport of senior government officials; REGA Swiss Air-Ambulance Ltd, which ordered three on 26 September 2001 for delivery in September and November 2002 in air ambulance configuration, and Shandong Airlines of China, launch operator of Bombardier's Flexjet Asia-Pacific fractional ownership programme, which has ordered four. Annual deliveries have included 33 in 1997, 36 in 1998, 40 in 1999, 38 in 2000, 41 in 2001, 31 in 2002, and five in the first three months of 2003.

COSTS: Unit cost (604), US$4 million, typically equipped (2002).

DESIGN FEATURES: Advanced wing section; quarter-chord sweep 25°; thickness/chord ratio 14 per cent at root, 12 per cent at leading-edge sweep break and 10 per cent at tip; dihedral 2&deg 33'; incidence at root 3° 30'; fuselage circular cross-section, pressurised.

FLYING CONTROLS: Conventional, fully powered hydraulic controls; electrically actuated variable incidence tailplane; two-segment spoilers (outboard airbrake panels, inboard lift dumpers); two-segment double-slotted flaps.

STRUCTURE: Two-spar wing torsion box; chemically milled fuselage skin panels with riveted frames and stringers form damage-tolerant structure; multispar fin and tailplane.

LANDING GEAR: Hydraulically retractable tricycle type, with twin wheels and Dowty oleo-pneumatic shock-absorber on each unit. Mainwheels retract inward into wing centre-section, nose unit forward. Nose unit steerable and self-centring. Mainwheels have H27x8.5-14 (16 ply) tubeless tyres, pressure 12.07 bar (175 lb/sq in); nosewheels have Goodrich 18x4.4 (12 ply) tubeless (deflector-type) tyres, pressure 10.00 bar (145 lb/sq in). ABS (Aircraft Braking Systems) hydraulically operated multiple-disc carbon brakes with fully modulated anti-skid system. Minimum ground turning radius 12.19 m (40 ft 0 in).

POWER PLANT: Two General Electric CF34-3B1 turbofans, each rated at 41.0 kN (9,220 lb st) with automatic power reserve, or 38.8 kN (8,729 lb st) without APR, pylon-mounted on rear fuselage and fitted with cascade-type fan-air thrust reversers. Nacelles and thrust reversers by Shorts. Integral fuel tank in centre-section, capacity 2,839 litres (750 US gallons; 624 Imp gallons), one each wing (each 2,725 litres; 720 US gallons; 600 Imp gallons) and auxiliary tanks (combined capacity 1,181 litres; 312 US gallons; 260 Imp gallons) beneath cabin floor. Saddle tanks, total capacity 999 litres (264 US gallons; 220 Imp gallons); tank in tailcone, capacity 745 litres (197 US gallons; 164 Imp gallons). Total fuel capacity 11,214 litres (2,963 US gallons; 2,468 Imp gallons). Pressure and gravity fuelling and defuelling. Oil capacity 13.6 litres (3.6 US gallons; 3.0 Imp gallons).

ACCOMMODATION: Two-pilot flight deck with dual controls. Blind-flying instrumentation standard. Cabin interiors to customer's specifications; maximum of 19 passenger seats and three crew approved. Typical installations include lavatory, buffet, bar and wardrobe. Medevac version can carry up to seven stretcher patients, infant incubator, full complement of medical staff and comprehensive intensive care equipment. Baggage compartment, with own loading door, accessible in flight. Downward-opening, power-assisted door on port side, forward of wing. Overwing emergency exit on starboard side. Entire accommodation heated, pressurised and air conditioned. Optional extended cabin interior increases cabin length by 0.51 m (1 ft 8 in) and provides two additional cabin windows by removing rear closet and moving the lavatory and baggage compartment bulkheads, with corresponding 0.20 m³ (7 cu ft) reductions in baggage capacity. Ultra Electronics active noise vibration control (ANVC) system optional.

SYSTEMS: Honeywell pressurisation and air conditioning systems, maximum pressure differential 0.63 bar (9.1 lb/sq in). Three independent hydraulic systems, each of 207 bar (3,000 lb/sq in). No. 1 system powers flight controls (via servo-actuators positioned by cables and pushrods); No. 2 system for flight controls and brakes; No. 3 system for flight controls, landing gear extension/retraction, brakes and nosewheel steering. Nos. 1 and 2 systems each powered by an engine-driven pump, supplemented by an AC electric pump; No. 3 system by two AC pumps. Two 30 kVA engine-driven generators supply primary 115/200 V three-phase AC electric power at 400 Hz. Four transformer-rectifiers to convert AC power to 28 V DC; on primary 24 V 17 Ah Ni/Cd battery and one auxiliary 24 V 43 Ah battery. Alternative primary power provided by APU and/or an air-driven generator, latter deployed automatically in flight if engine-driven generators and APU are inoperative. Stall warning system, with stick shakers and stick pusher. Honeywell GTCP-100E gas-turbine APU for engine start, ground air conditioning and other services. Electric anti-icing of windscreen, flight deck side windows and pilot heads; Hamilton Sundstrand bleed air anti-icing of wing leading-edges, engine intake cowls and guide vanes. Gaseous oxygen system, pressure 127.5 bar (1,850 lb/sq in). Continuous-element fire detectors in each engine nacelle, APU and main landing gear bays; two-shot extinguishing system for engines, single-shot system for APU.

AVIONICS: Rockwell Collins Pro Line 4 with PrecisionPlus upgrade.
Comms: Dual VHF; dual ATC transponders; dual HF; cockpit voice recorder.
Radar: Rockwell Collins WXP-4220 colour digital weather radar with turbulence detection.
Flight: Dual VHF nav with provision for third; dual DME; dual ADF; dual Litton TN-101 laser inertial reference systems (LIRS) with full provision for third; dual flight management system with provision for third; digital automatic flight control system, with dual-channel autopilot and flight director; Mach trim and auto trim; dual digital air data system. Flight Dynamics HGS 2150 HUD received FAA approval on 4 April 2000 and is optional. Space provisions for flight data recorder, ELT, dual GPS, EGPWS, AFIS, TCAS and Safe Flight Instrument Corporation AutoPower enhanced autothrottle system.
Instrumentation: Rockwell Collins digital avionics include Pro Line 4 six-tube EFIS with 184 x 184 mm (7¼ x 7¼ in) CRT displays which include two-tube EICAS display (MFD); standby instruments (artificial horizon, airspeed indicator, compass and altimeter). Systems certified for Cat. II operations.

EQUIPMENT (Medevac version): Includes cardiopulmonary resuscitation unit; physio control lifepack comprising heart defibrillator, ECG and cardioscope; ophthalmoscope; respirators and resuscitators; infant monitor; X-ray viewer; cardiostimulator; foetal heart monitor; and anti-shock suit.