Brazilian Air Force designations: R-99A, R-99B and P-99.

TYPE: Regional jet airliner.

PROGRAMME: Development plans revealed 12 June 1989, aimed at first flight late 1991 and first deliveries mid-1993; programme delayed by company cutbacks, complete redesign of wing and other changes, as described in 2000-01 and earlier Jane's.
First metal cut for prototype, and tooling fabrication, in second quarter 1993; assembly of prototype (PT-ZJA) began October 1994; fuselage sections mated January 1995; first flight 11 August 1995 ahead of formal roll-out and 'official' first flight a week later; first of three pre-series aircraft (PT-ZJB) first flown 17 November 1995; second ('ZJC) flew on 14 February and third ('ZJD) 2 April 1996; FAA and Brazilian CTA certification (to FAR/JAR 25, FAR Pt 36, ICAO Annex 16 and FAR Pt 121) achieved 10 December 1996. Single prototype and three pre-series aircraft undertook a 1,600 hour, 13 month development flight testing and certification programme. Deliveries began on 19 December 1996 with two aircraft (N15925 and N15926) to US launch customer Continental Express. Designation changed from EMB-145 to ERJ-145 in October 1997 to reflect 'Regional Jet' terminology although former is retained for corporate and military variants. Certified by the aviation authorities of 27 countries by September 1998.
In addition to its suitability for executive transport and corporate shuttle roles, Embraer foresees military potential for the ERJ-145 as a tanker aircraft for small combat units, and as an AEW, elint, comint sigint or battlefield surveillance platform. See Current Versions.
Two static test airframes: first (802) completed trials on 30 August 1996; second (803) began 10 year programme in December 1996.

CURRENT VERSIONS: ERJ-145: Initial version. Certified (by FAA) 10 December 1996 at 19,200 kg (42,328 lb) MTOW.
ERJ-145ER (Extended Range): FAA co-certification 10 December 1996 at 20,600 kg (45,415 lb) MTOW.
ERJ-145MR: Certified by FAA 7 May 1998 at 22,000 kg (48,501 lb) MTOW.
ERJ-145LR (Long Range): FAA co-certification 7 May 1998 for full passenger payload range of 1,640 n miles (3,037 km; 1,887 miles); increases in fuel capacity and all operating weights; 22,000 kg (48,501 lb) MTOW; and uprated AE 3007A1 turbofans providing 15 per cent more thermodynamic power, but flat rated to 33.1 kN (7,430 lb st), for improved climb and hot weather cruise performance.
ERJ-145XR (Extra Long Range): Announced at Farnborough International Air Show 25 July 2000 with launch order for 75, plus 100 options, from Continental Express subsequently to 104, plus 100 options. Features strengthened fuselage, wings and horizontal stabiliser, winglets, uprated AE 3007A1E turbofans providing lower specific fuel consumption, improved hot-and-high operation and higher single-engine ceiling; and auxiliary fuel tank in wing/fuselage fairing. Prototype (PT-ZJB, modified from first pre-series ERJ-145) first flown 29 June 2001; first production aircraft (c/n 590) flew early April 2002; two aircraft took part in a 400 hour test programme. Brazilian CTA granted 3 September 2002, followed by FAA approval 22 October 2002, and first deliveries to Continental Express/ExpressJet, which was scheduled to receive 18 ERJ-145XRs by the end of 2002.
ERJ-135: Short-fuselage, 37-seat version; described separately.
ERJ-140: Mid-size, 44-seat version; described separately.
EMB-145AEW&C: Formerly EMB-145SA; Brazilian Air Force designation R-99A. Airborne early warning and remote sensing version of ERJ-145LR developed for Brazilian government's Sistema de Vigilância da Amazônia (SIVAM) programme for which Raytheon is prime contractor; initial requirement for five; contract signature March 1997. Selected on 15 December 1998 by Greek Air Force for its four-aircraft AEW requirement, with delivery from 2002; contract, signed 1 July 1999, valued at US$500 million. Announced late 1996 and features a strengthened fuselage, ventral strakes, more powerful APU, increased fuel capacity (three extra tanks at extreme rear of cabin, plus jettison capability), extending endurance to more than 8 hours; enhanced electrical system, five seats for relief crew and four (with provision for additional two) operators' consoles, including tactical co-ordinator. Flight crew of two.
Mission systems comprise civil version of Ericsson PS-890 Erieye side-looking airborne radar with antenna housed in long overfuselage fairing, optimised for lower-speed targets typically encountered in border incursions; five Erieye systems purchased at cost of US$145 million in 1997 for installation in EMB-145SAs, with first system delivery scheduled for 1999. Onboard command and control system, and BAE Systems North America Comms-Non Comms system. Radar is pulse Doppler type, operating in E/F-band, offering coverage from very low level up to about 25,000 m (82,000 ft) and at ranges exceeding 162 n miles (300 km; 186 miles). Datalink; GPS; secure communications. Second airframe (PP-XSA/6702) was first to fly, on 22 May 1999, ahead of formall roll-out on 28 May. Following systems integration by Raytheon in USA, first two R-99As and one R-99B handed over to 2°/6° Grupo at Anapolis on 24 July 2002; third and fourth R-99As followed in December 2002.
Greek selection of Erieye-equipped EMB-145 announced 1 july 1999; four aircraft ordered, of which first two delivered on 24 September 2001.
Mexican government order for one EMB-145AEW&C announced 1 March 2001; equipment includes comint system installed by Raytheon.
EMB-145RS: Brazilian Air Force designation R-99B. Remote sensing version, of which three ordered for FAB's SIVAM programme for delivery commencing first quarter 2001. Similar to AEW variant, and with ventral strakes, but different mission systems for primary roles in natural resources exploitation, environmental and river pollution control, economic activities, ground occupation monitoring and illegal activities surveillance. Main sensor is version of Canadian MacDonald Dettwiler IRIS (Integrated Radar Imaging System) synthetic aperture radar, installed in underfuselage bulge with auxiliary antennas beneath wingroots, operating in D-band interferometric mode and capable of generating 3-D imagery. Other main sensors include Star Safire FLIR mounted behind nosewheel bay, Daedalus ultraviolet/visible/infra-red linescanner and BAE Systems North America Comms-Non Comms system. Roll-out (PP-XRT/6751) November 1999, with first delivery to 2°/6° Grupo at Anapolis AFB on 24 July 2002.
EMB-145AGS: Airborne ground sensor version, under study during 2000; equipped with a mission package comprising Airborne Platform Subsystem (APS), Airborne Mission Equipment Subsystem (AMES) and Ground Exploitation Station Subsystem (GESS) including HF, UHF, VHF, ELINT and IMINT equipment, providing a self-deployable and cost-effective surface reconnaissance system.
EMB-145MP and EMB-145MP/ASW: Brazilian Air Force designation P-99. Maritime patrol and anti-submarine warfare versions, under development by 2000; equipped with surveillance radar with multiple target track-while-scan mode, autodetection, FLIR interface, digital map, incorporated tactical aids, SAR/ISAR mode allowing real-time imaging, adaptive processing for different sea states, and simultaneous side and range views; high-altitude and resolution FLIR; ESM suite; COMINT/ELINT; MAD; IFF/SSR and acoustics.
Mexican government order for two EMB-145MPs announced 1 March 2001. Equipment includes SeaVue radar and AN/APX-114 IFF interrogator to be installed by Raytheon at Greenville.

CUSTOMERS: Total of 675 firm orders and 475 options for EMB-145 commercial variant by 31 December 2003, of which 531 then delivered. Four hundredth ERJ series delivery was an ERJ-145 (HB-JAL) to Crossair on 22 March 2001; 500th was an ERJ-145 (N2933K) delivered to Chatauqua Airlines of Indiana on 21 September 2001; 600th to Swiss (as HB-JAY) on 28 may 2002, and 700th to Alitalia Express on 9 May 2003. Total of 112 ERJ-145s delivered in 2000, and 104 in 2001. Belgian Air Force took delivery of two ERJ-145LRs in VIP configuration (CE-03 and CE-04) on 11 December 2001 and 21 January 2002 respectively.

COSTS: Estimated development costs US$300 million.

Follow description applies to ERJ-145ER except where indicated.

DESIGN FEATURES: Stretched EMB-120 Brasilia fuselage (with tailcone adapted for rear-mounted engine installation), allied to new-design wing with Embraer supercritical section; CBA-123 nose and cabin; T tailplane.
Wing sweepback 22° 43' 48" at quarter-chord.

FLYING CONTROLS: Conventional and assisted. Ailerons and two-section rudder hydraulically actuated, with artificial feel; mechanically actuated elevator with automatic and spring tab. Four-segment in-flight and ground spoilers; two pairs of electrically actuated double-slotted flaps, maximum deflection 45°.

STRUCTURE: Fuselage as for Brasilia; two-spar wing with integral fuel tanks, plus auxiliary third spar supporting landing gear; T tail unit with aluminium main boxes; wing and tailplane leading-edges aluminium, fin leading-edge composites sandwich. Gamesa (Spain) builds wings, wing/body fairings, main landing gear doors and engine nacceles; rear fuselage section 1, including engine pylons and passenger/service/baggage doors, plus centre-fuselage section 1, including doors, by Sonaca (Belgium); fin, tailplane and elevators by ENAER (Chile); engine nacelles and thrust reversers by International Nacelle Systems; nose radome by Norton; passenger cabin and baggage compartment interiors by C&D Interiors (USA). Structure designed for an economical service life of 60,000 flights.

LANDING GEAR: Twin-wheel main legs retract inward into wing/fuselage fairings; twin-wheel nose unit retracts forward. EDE/Liebherr landing gear system system, with EDE responsible for whole system and Liebherr for development and production of nose unit. Goodrich wheels and carbon brakes. Tyre size 30x9.5-14 (16 ply) tubeless (main), 19.5x6.75-8 (8 ply) tubeless (nose); tyre pressure 8.60 to 9.00 bar (125 to 130 lb/sq in). Minimum ground turning radius at nosewheel 12.51 m (41 ft 0 in). Minimum turning circle 29.22 m (95 ft 10½ in).

POWER PLANT: Two turbofans pylon-mounted on rear cone of ERJ-145ER, 145MR and 145LR have 33.7 kN (7,580 lb st), Rolls-Royce AE 3007A, 3007A1/1 or 3007A1/2 as standard; 37.1 kN (8,338 lb st) AE 3007A1P optional, all with FADEC. ERJ-145XR has two 39.6 kN (8,895 lb st) AE 3007A1Es. Clamshell-type thrust reversers optional.
Parker Hannifim fuel system. Fuel capacity of ER and MR 5,201 litres (1,374 US gallons; 1,144 Imp gallons) in two wing tanks; usable fuel 5,091 litres (1,345 US gallons; 1,120 Imp gallons). ERJ-145LR capacity increased to 6,439 litres (1,701 US gallons; 1,418 Imp gallons; 6,352 litres (1,678 US gallons; 1,397 Imp gallons) usable. ERJ-145XR fuel comprises two wing tanks, each of 3,199 litres (845 US gallons; 704 Imp gallons), plus 1,037 litre (274 US gallon; 228 Imp gallon) ventral tank, for total of 7,435 litres (1,964 US gallons; 1,635 Imp gallons), of which 7,382 litres (1,950 US gallons; 1,624 Imp gallons) usable.

ACCOMMODATION: Two pilots, flight observer and cabin attendant. Standart accommodation for 50 passengers, three-abreast at seat pitch of 79 cm (31 in). Carry-on baggage wardrobe, galley and cabin attendant's seat at front of cabin; lavatory and main baggage compartment at rear of cabin. Cabinet plus overhead bins carry-on baggage capacity 358 kg (789 lb); underseat capacity 450 kg (992 lb); main baggage compartment capacity 1,200 kg (2,646 lb). Additional baggage cabinet or galley capacity can be provided by removing one or two single forward passenger seats. Outward-opening plug-type door, incorporating airstair, at front on port side, identical to that of EMB-120; upward-sliding baggage door at rear on port side; sideways-opening service door at front on starboard side; inward-opening emergency exit above wing on each side. Entire accommodation, including baggage compartments, pressurised and air conditioned.

SYSTEMS: Liebherr Aerospace pressurisation system (maximum differential 0.54 bar; 7.8 lb/sq in) maintains 2,440 m (8,000 ft) cabin altitude to 11,275 m (37,000 ft). Hamilton Sundstrand air conditioning and bleed air systems (wing and tailplane leading-edges and engine intakes anti-iced by engine bleed air); electric anti-icing system for windscreen and static and pitot tubes and sensors. Lucas electrical power generation system. Hamilton Sundstrand T-62T-40C11 or C14 APU. Honeywell air turbine starter. Parker Hannifin flight control and steering systems. Hydro-Aire brake-by-wire control system. EROS oxygen system.

AVIONICS: Honeywell Primus 1000 as core system.
Comms: Dual Primus II radios and radio management units.
Radar: Primus 1000 colour weather radar.
Flight: Dual digital air data computers, dual AHRS, TCAS and GPWS standard. FMS/GPS optional. Flight Dynamics HUD selected April 1998 for certification in 2000, providing Cat. III landing capability.
Instrumentation: EFIS panel comprising five 280x180 mm (11x7 in) displays, two PFDs, two MFDs and IECAS.