English name: Super Toucan
Brazilian Air Force designations: A-29A and AT-29B

TYPE: Basic turboprop trainer/attack lightplane.

PROGRAMME: Design of original EMB-312 Tucano started January 1978. Ministry of Aeronautics contract received 6 December that year for two flying prototypes and two static/fatigue test airframes; first prototype (Brazilian Air Force serial number 1300) made first flight 16 August 1980, second (1301) on 10 December 1980; third to fly (PP-ZDK, on 16 August 1982) was to production standard. Total of 650 built by 1998; further details in 2000-01 and previous Jane's.
Development of EMB-314 began January 1991; announced (as EMB-312H) at Paris Air Show June 1991; Embraer development aircraft PT-ZTW (c/n 312161, previously used as prototype for TPE331-powered Tucano adopted by Royal Air Force) modified as Tucano H proof-of-concept (POC) prototype, making first flight in this form 9 September 1991. This aircraft toured US Air Force/Navy bases August and September 1992 as preliminary to Super Tucano entry in JPATS competition; Embraer teamed with Northrop May 1992 to bid Super Tucano for JPATS, but was unsuccessful. Provisional Brazilian type certification granted August 1994 after 500 hour, 396 sortie test and certification programme.

CURRENT VERSIONS: EMB-314: Two EMB-312H prototypes (PT[later PP]-ZTV, c/n 312454, first flight 15 May 1993, and PP-ZTF, c/n 312455, first flight 14 October 1993) tailored to US JPATS requirements as EMB-312HJ. Designation subdequently changed to EMB-314 to reflect extensive modifications to structure and systems.
ALX (EMB-314M): Brazilian Air Force (FAB) version, for border patrol missions under its SIVAM (Sistema de Vigilancia da AMazonia) programme. FAB finalised specification in early 1994; trials to validate projected flight characteristics, using POC aircraft and both Super Tucano prototypes, completed 1994. US$50 million development contract signed 18 August 1995 for two prototypes (onr single-seat) to be modified from Super Tucano prototypes. The first flew in May 1996 and is being used for external stores compatibility and handling qualities testing; the second, which flew in early 1997, for testing the advanced weapons systems. Total 650 hours accumulated by early 2002, with up to 300 more required for completion.
FAB commitment to purchase 99 ALXs, of which 50 will be two-seat AT-29, 30 of these replacing AT-26 Xavante with 2°/5° Grupo of Training Command at Natal AFB, remainder configured for night intruder role and expected to serve with 1°/3° Grupo at Boa Vista and 2°/3° Grupo at Porto Velho; 49 will be single-seat A-29. Prototype 5700 (the former EMB-314 PP-ZTV), designated YA-29, rolled out 28 May 1999; IOC originally intended in May 2001 but FAB formal order only placed (76 firm, plus 23 options) on 8 August 2001; production started February 2002; deliveries to begin in December 2003. Elbit selected December 1996 to supply mission avionics, including ventral FLIR Systems AN/AAQ-22 turret, GPS/INS, radalt, Mode S transponder, DME, ILS, ADF, VOR, RWR, MAWS and chaff/flare dispenser. Export variants of both versions will be offered for border patrol/COIN missions and for basic/advanced pilot training. Can be flown as single-seat attack aircraft with fuel tank in rear cockpit.
Dominican Republic Air Force ordered 10 Super Tucanos on 20 August 2001.
Estimated market for 500 aircraft over 10 years.

DESIGN FEATURES: Meets requirements of FAR Pt 23 Appendix A, and MIL and CAA Section K specifications. Low-mounted wings, stepped cockpits in tandem, fully aerobatic. Small fillet forward of tailplane root each side.
EMB-314 differs from EMB-312 mainly in having more powerful engine, reprofiled wing and plugs of 0.37 m (1 ft 2½ in) forward and 1.00 m (3 ft 3¼ in) aft of cockpit to accommodate longer engine and retain CG and stability. Other changes include strengthened airframe for higher g loads and longer fatigue life, potentially 18,000 hours for typical training missions, or 12,000 hours in operational environments, depending on mission loads and utilisation; ventral strakes; five weapons hardpoints; NVG-compatible 'glass cockpit' with HOTAS controls. Able to cover whole primary and half of advanced pilot training syllabus, and fly precision weapons delivery and target towing missions.
Wing section NACA 63-415 root; NACA 63A-212 at tip.

FLYING CONTROLS: Conventional and manual. Primary surfaces internally balanced; electrically actuated trim tab in, and small geared tab on, each Frise aileron; electromechanically actuated spring tab in rudder and port elevator. Electrically actuated single-slotted Fowler flaps on wing trailing-edges. Fixed incidence tailplane. Ventral airbrake.

STRUCTURE: Conventional all-metall construction from 2024 series aluminium alloys; continuous three-spar wing box forms integral fuel tankage. Steel flap tracks.

LANDING GEAR: Hydraulically retractable tricycle type, with single wheel and Piper oleo-pneumatic shock-absorber on each unit. Accumulator for emergency extension in the event of hydraulic system failure. Hydraulic steering for nose unit. Rearward-retracting steerable nose unit; main units retract inward into wings. Parker Hannifin 40-130 mainwheels, Oldi-DI-1.555-02-OL nosewheel. Tyre sizes 6.50-10 (8 ply) tubeless on mainwheels, 5.00-5 (6 ply) tubeless on nosewheel. Tyre pressures (±0.21 bar; 3 lb/sq in in each case) are 5.17 bar (75 lb/sq in) on mainwheels, 4.48 bar (65 lb/sq in) on nosewheel. Parker Hannifin 30-95A hydraulic mainwheel brakes.

POWER PLANT: ALX: One 1,193 kW (1,600 shp) Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-68-3 turboprop, with FADEC, driving a Hartzell five-blade, constant-speed, fully feathering, reversible-pitch propeller.
EMB-314: One 969 kW (1,300 shp) PT6A-68A. Single-level combined control for engine throttling and propeller pitch adjustment. Two integral fuel tanks in each wing, total capacity 694 litres (183.3 US gallons; 152.7 Imp gallons). Fuel tanks lined with anti-detonation plastics foam. Optional self-sealing 303 litre (80.0 US gallon; 66.6 Imp gallon) tank in rear cockpit. Single-point pressure refuelling. Fuel system allows nominally for up to 30 seconds of inverted flight. Provision for three ferry fuel tanks (centreline and inboard wing pylons), each total capacity 330 litres (87.1 US gallons; 72.6 Imp gallons).

ACCOMMODATION: Two in tandem, on Martin-Baker Mk 10 LCX zero-zero ejection seats, in air conditioned and pressurised cockpit. One-piece fully transparent vacuum-formed canopy, opening sideways to starboard, with internal and external jettison provisions. Rear seat elevated 25 cm (9.9 in). Dual controls standard. Baggage compartment in rear fuselage, with access via door on port side.

SYSTEMS: Two-axis autopilot with embedded mission planning capability. Freon air cycle conditioning system, with engine-driven compressor. Single hydraulic system, consisting basically of (a) control unit, including reservoir with usable capacity of 1.9 litres (0.5 US gallon; 0.42 Imp gallon); (b) an engine-driven pump with nominal pressure of 131 bar (1,900 lb/sq in) and nominal flow rate of 4.6 litres (1.22 US gallons; 1.01 Imp gallons)/min at 3,800 rpm; (c) landing gear and gear door actuators; (d) filter; (e) shutoff valve; and (f) hydraulic fluid to MIL-H-5606. Under normal operation, hydraulic system actuates landing gear extension/retraction and control of gear doors. Landing gear extension can be performed under emergency operation; emergency retraction also possible during landing and T-O with engine running. Reservoir and system are suitable for aerobatics. No pneumatic system. 28 V DC electrical power provided by a 6 kW starter/generator, 26 Ah baterry and, for 115 V and 26 V AC power at 400 Hz a 250 VA inverter. Onboard oxygen generation system. Canopy and propeller de-icing. Integrated Data Acquisition Recorder (IDAR) includes VCR and FDR functions.

AVIONICS: Comms: Standard Rockwell Collins equipment. Integrated nav/com. Tactical VHF/UHF with datalink provisions; transponder.
Flight: Laser INS/dual GPS; twin VOR; ILS; DME; ADF; autopilot.
Instrumentation: Two 152x203 mm (6x8 in) CMFDs in each cockpit; HUD with up-front control panel in front cockpit. NVG Gen III compatible internal/external lighting. Optional HMD.
Mission: Provision for datalink; video camera and recorder. Embedded mission planning capability. Virtual radar/armament training systems. FLIR. Chaff/flare dispensers; MAWS and RWR.

EQUIPMENT: Landing light in each wing leading-edge; taxying lights on nosewheel unit. Optional Kevlar cockpit armour.

ARMAMENT: One 12.7 mm machine gun and 200 rounds mounted in each wing. Provision for a variety of ordnance including two Giat NC621 20 mm cannon pods, Mk 81/82 bombs, MAA-1 Piranha AAMs, BLG-252 cluster bombs, SBAT-70/19 or LAU-68A/G rocket pods or MLBs on underwing stations.