TYPE: Light utility turboprop
Brazilian Air Force designation: C-98
US DoD designation: U-27A
PROGRAMME: First flight of engineering prototype (N208LP) 9 December 1982; first production Caravan rolled out August 1984; FAA certification 23 october 1984; full production started 1985; wheeled float version certified March 1986. Cessna 208A certified 11 February 1985. First single-engined aircraft to achieve FAA certification for ILS in Cat II conditions (Federal Express aircraft equipped); approval for IFR cargo operations 1989 made France and Ireland first European countries to allow single-engined public transport day/night IFR operation; also since approved in Canada, Denmark and Sweden. Russian certification of 208 and 208B achieved 4 September 1998. The 1,000 th of the 208B version was delivered on 12 December 2002 to Supap Puranitee of Thailand. 100th Caravan equipped with Wipaire 8000 floats delivered 16 May 2000. Total fleet operating time exceeded 6.1 million hours by December 2002, at which time Caravans were in service in 67 countries. Quoted dispatch reliability rate is 99.9 per cent. Basic utility model for passengers or cargo was Cessna 208. Engine flat rated at 447 kW (600 shp) to 3,800 m (12,500 ft). Federal Express Corporation version was 208A Cargomaster freighter with special features including T-O weight 3,629 kg (8,000 lb). Honeywell avionics, no cabin windows or starboard rear door, more cargo tiedowns, additional cargo net, underfuselage cargo pannier of composites materials, 15.2 cm (6 in) vertical extension of fin/rudder, jetpipe deflected to carry exhaust clear of pannier. These early versions now discontinued; military U-27A no longer promoted.
CURRENT VERSIONS: Caravan 675: Combines airframe of 208 and 208A with fully rated engine of 208B. Announced at NBAA Convention in Dallas, Texas, September 1997; FAA certification achieved in April 1998 with first delivery (N900RG; c/n 00277) 15 April to Riversville Aviation Company of New York in amphibious configuration; production follows on from 208/208A, beginning at c/n 002777.
208B: Stretched version, lacking cabin windows, and with ventral cargo pod as standard, developed at request of Federal Express. Commissioned by FedEx as Super Cargomaster, first flight (N9767F) 3 March 1986; certified 9 October 1986; first delivery to FedEx 31 October 1986. Features include 1.22 m (4 ft) fuselage plug aft of wing, payload of 1,587 kg (3.500 lb) and 12.7 m3 (450 cu ft) of cargo volume; 503 kW (675 shp) P&WC PT6A-114A from 1991.
Grand Caravan: Announced at NBAA Convention 1990; passenger version of 204B, with cabin winows, accommodating up to 14 in quick-change interior.
CUSTOMERS: Federal Express Corporation received 40 208As and 260 208Bs. Recent customers include Ben Air Inc of Stauning, Denmark, which will take delivery of five Grand Caravans between 2000-2004 for onward sale to Scandinavian customers; Shandong Airlines of the People's Republic of China, which ordered one Grand Caravan and two Caravan 675s an amphibious floats for delivery in first quarter 2001, plus 37 options, of which two were exercised in 2002; China Northern Airlines of Shenyang, which took delivery of three Grand Caravans in 2002; Van Nuys Flight Center of California, which ordered 10 Grand Caravans for delivery between September 2001 and September 2005, four delivered to undisclosed Russian customers in the first half of 2002, and four delivered to three cargo operators in Spain in the first half 2002. Other customers include Royal Canadian Mounted Police (first amphibious version), Brazilian Air Force (eight), Chilean Army (three deliverd from 7 February 1998 onwards), Liberian Army (one) and Malaysian Police (six delivered in 1994).
Total of 1,447 Caravans (all versions) delivered by 30 September 2003, including 102 in 1998; 87 in 1999, 92 in 2000, 75 in 2001, 80 in 2002 and 42 in the first nine months of 2003. Out-of-production variants comprised two prototypes, 239 Model 208s and 37 Model 208As.
COSTS: Caravan 675 US$1,575,690 (amphibian US$1,850,690); Super Cargomaster US$1,390,000; Grand Caravan US$1,607,090 (all 2003,typically equipped).
DESIGN FEATURES: Launched as first all-new single-engined turboprop general aviation aircraft; intention was to replace de Havilland Canada Beavers and Otters, Cessna 180s, 185s and 206s in worldwide utility role. Main qualities advertised are high speed with heavy load, compatibility with unprepared strips, economy and reliability with minimum maintenance; can also carry weather radar, air conditioning and oxygen systems; optional packs for firefighting, photography, spraying, ambulance/hearse, border patrol, parachuting and supply dropping, surveillance and government utility missions; optional wheel or float landing gear. Braced, high-wing design; tapered wings and tailplane; sweptback fin with dorsal fillet; auxiliary fins on floatplane. Wing aerofoil NACA 23017.424 at root, 23012 at tip; dihedral 30 from root; incidence 20 37' at root, -00 36' at tip.
FLYING CONTROLS: Conventional and manual. Lateral control by small ailerons and slot-lip spoilers ahead of outer section of flaps; aileron trim standard; all tail control surfaces horn balanced; fixed tailplane with upper surface vortex generators ahead of elevator; elevator trim tabs; electrically actuated single-slotted flaps occupy more than 70 per cent of trailing-edge and deflect to maximum 300. Control surface movements: ailerons +25/-160; elevator +25/-200; rudder ±250.
STRUCTURE: All-metal. Fail-safe two-spar wing; conventional fuselage.
LANDING GEAR: Non-retractable tricycle type, with single wheel on each unit. Tubular spring cantilever main units; oil-damped steerable nosewheel. Mainwheel tyres size 6.50-10 (8 ply); nosewheel 6.50-8 (8 ply). Oversize tyres, optional, mainwheels 8.50-10, nosewheel 22x8.00-8, and extended nosewheel fork, optional. Hydraulically actuated single-disc brake on each mainwheel. Certified with Wipline 8000 floats (with or without retractable land wheels).
POWER PLANT: One 503 kW (675 shp) P&WC PT6A-114A turboprop. McCauley 3GFR34C703/106GA-0 three-blade, constant-speed, reversible-pitch and feathering metal propeller. Alternatively, Hartzell HC-B3MN3/M10083. Integral fuel tanks in wings, total capacity 1,268 litres (335 US gallons; 279 Imp gallons), of which 1,257 litres (332 US gallons; 276,5 Imp gallons) are usable.
ACCOMMODATION: Pilot and up to nine passengers or 1,360 kg (3,000 lb) of cargo. Maximum seating capacity with FAR Pt 23 waiver is 14. Cabin has a flat floor with cargo track attachments for a combination of two- and three-abreast seating, with an aisle between seats. Forward-hinged door for pilot, with direct vision window, on each side of forward fuselage. Airstair door for passengers at rear of cabin on starboard side. Cabin is heated and ventilated. Optional air conditioning. Two-section horizontally split cargo door at rear of cabin on port side, flush with floor at bottom and with aquare corners. Upper portion hinges upward, lower portion forward 1800. Optional elecrically operated, flight openable tambour roll-up door with airflow deflecting spoiler. In a cargo role, cabin will accommodate, typically, two D-size cargo containers or up to ten 208 litre (55 US gallon; 45.8 Imp gallon) drums. Upgraded interior with new colour-co-ordinated fabrics and leather, and new seat design introduced in February 2001.
SYSTEMS Electrical system is powered by 28 V 200 A starter/generator and 24 V 45 Ah lead-acid battery (24 V 40 Ah Ni/Cd battery optional). Standby elecrical system, with 75 A alternator, optional. Hydraulic system for brakes only. Oxygen system, capacity 3,315 litres (117 cu ft), optional. Vacuum system standard. Cabin air conditioning system optional from c/n 208-00030 onwards. De-icing system, comprising electric propeller de-icing boots, pneumatic wing, wing strut and tail surface boots, electrically heated windscreen panel, heated pilot/static probe, ice detector light and standby electrical system, all optional.
AVIONICS: Customers' choice of Bendix/King and Garmin packages introduced in 2001; typical equipment listed below.
Comms: Dual Bendix/King KX 165 nav/com/glideslope. KT70 Mode s transponder, KHF 950 HF transceiver and KMA 24H audio control.
Flight: Bendix/King KFC 225 flight director/autopilot, KLN 90 GPS, dual KR 87 ADF, KN 63 DME and KR 21 MKR. Garmin alternatives include GNS 340 com/nav/GPS; GNS 530 WAAS-upgradable IFR com/nav/GPS with LOC and glideslope receiver, GMA 240 or GMA 340 audio panel and GTX 327 Mode C digital transponder with LCD display. Bendix/King KDR 510 flight information service and KMH 880 multi-hazard awareness system optional from 2003.
Instrumentation: Sensitive altimeter, electric clock, magnetic compass, attitude and directional gyros, true airspeed indicator, turn and bank indicator, vertical speed indicator, ammeter/voltmeter, fuel flow indicator, ITT indicator, oil pressure and temperature indicator.
EQUIPMENT: Standard equipment includes windsreen defrost, ground service plug receptacle, variable intensity instrument post lighting, map light, overhead courtesy lights (three) and overhead floodlights (pilot and co-pilot), approach plate holder, cargo tiedowns, internal corrosion proofing, vinyl floor covering, emergency locator beacon, partial plumbing for oxygen system, pilot's and co-pilot's adjustable fore/aft/vertical/reclining seats with armrest and five-point restraint harness, tinted windows, control surface bonding straps, heated pilot and stall warning systems, courtesy lights on wing underside, passenger reading lights, retractable crew steps (port side), rudder gust lock, tiedowns and towbar.
Optional equipment includes passenger seats, stowable folding utility seats, gigital clock, fuel totaliser, turn coordinator, flight hour recorder, fire extinguisher, dual controls, co pilot flight instruments, floatplane kit (from c/n 208-00030 onwards), hoisting rings (for floatplane), inboard fuel filling provisions (included in floatplane kit), ice detection light, flashing beacon, retractable crew step for starboard side, oversized tyres, electric trim system, oil quick drain valve and fan-driven ventilation system.
|DIMENSIONS, EXTERNAL (L: landplane, A: amphibian|
|Wing span||15.88 m (52 ft 1 in)|
|Wing chord: at root||1.98 m (6 ft 6 in)|
|at tip||1.22 m (4 ft 0 in)|
|Wing aspect ratio||9.7|
|Length overall: L||11.46 m (37 ft 7 in)|
|Height overall: L||4.52 m (14 ft 10 in)|
|A (on land)||4.98 (16 ft 4 in)|
|Tailplane span||6.25 m (20 ft 6 in)|
|Wheel track: L||3.56 m (11 ft 8 in)|
|A||3.25 m (10 ft 8 in)|
|Wheelbase: L||3.54 m (11 ft 71/2 in)|
|A||4.44 m (14 ft 7 in)|
|Propeller diameter||2.69 m (8 ft 10 in)|
|Airstair door: Height||1.27 m (4 ft 2 in)|
|Width||0.61 m (2 ft 0 in)|
|Cargo door: Height||1.27 m (4 ft 2 in)|
|Width||1.24 m (4 ft 1 in)|
|DIMENSIONS, INTERNAL (208):|
|Cabin: Length, excl baggage area||4,57 m (15 ft 0 in)|
|Max width||1.57 m (5 ft 2 in)|
|Max height||1.30 m (4 ft 3 in)|
|Volume||9.7 m3 (341 cu ft)|
|Cargo pannier: Length||5.58 m (18 ft 31/2 in)|
|Width||1.28 m (4 ft 21/2 in)|
|Depth||0.50 m (1 ft 71/2 in)|
|Volume||2.4 m3 (83 cu ft)|
|Wings, gross||25.96 m2 (279.4 sq ft)|
|Vertical tail surfaces (total, incl dorsal fin)||3.57 m2 (38.41 sq ft)|
|Horizontal tail surfaces (total)||6.51 m2 (70.04 sq ft)|
|WEIGHTS AND LOADINGS (A: 208-675 Caravan; B: Super
Cargomaster; C: Grand Caravan: D: Caravan Amphibian):
|Weight empty: A||1,832 kg (4,039 lb)|
|D||2,259 kg (4,980 lb)|
|Baggage capacity||147 kg (325 lb)|
|Cargo pannier capacity||372 kg (820 lb)|
|Max fuel weight||1,009 kg (2,224 lb)|
|Max T-O weight: A, D||3,629 kg (8,000 lb)|
|B,C||3,969 kg (8,750 lb)|
|Max ramp weight; A, D||3,645 kg (8,035 lb)|
|B,C||3,985 kg (8,785 lb)|
|Max landing weight: A, D||3,538 kg (7,800 lb)|
|B,C||3.855 kg (8,500 lb)|
|Max wing loading: A, D||139.8 kg/m2 (28.63 Ib/sq ft)|
|B,C||152.9 kg/m2 (31.32 Ib/sq ft)|
|Max power loading: A. D||7.21 kg/kW (11.85 Ib/shp)|
|B,C||7.89 kg/kW (12.96 Ib/shp)|
|PERFORMANCE (A; 208-675 landplane; D: Caravan Amphibian):|
|Max operating speed (VMO)||175 kt (325 km/h; 202 mph) IAS|
|Max cruising speed at FL100:|
|A||186 kt (344 km/h; 214 mph)|
|D||163 kt (302 km/h; 188 mph)|
|Stalling speed, power off:|
|flaps up: A||75 kt (139 km/h; 87 mph) CAS|
|D||74 kt (137 km/h; 86 mph) CAS|
|flaps down: A||61 kt (113 km/h; 71 mph) CAS|
|D||59 kt (110 km/h; 68 mph) CAS|
|F, A, landing configuration||59 kt (109 km/h; 68 mph) CAS|
|Max rate of climb at S/L: A||376 m (1,234 ft)/min|
|D||338 m (1,110 ft)/min|
|Max certified altitude: A||7,620 m (25,000 ft)|
|D||6,100 m (20,000 ft)|
|T-O run: A||354 m (1,160 ft)|
|D: on land||335 m (1,100 ft)|
|on water||585 m (1,920 ft)|
|T-O to 15 m (50 ft): A||626 m (2,053 ft)|
|Landing from 15 m f50 ft) at S/L. without propeller|
|reversal: A||505 m (1,655 ft)|
|D: on land||454 m (1,490 ft)|
|on water||590 m (1,935 ft)|
|Landing run at S/L, without propeller reversal:|
|A||227 m (745 ft)|
|D: on land||224 m (735 ft)|
|on water||319 m (1,045 ft)|
|Range with max fuel, at max cruise power, allowances
for start, taxi and reserves stated:
|A at FL100 45 min||932 n miles (1,726 km; 1,072 miles)|
|A at FL200 45 min||1,220 n miles (2,259 km; 1.404 miles)|
|D at FL100 30 min||990 n miles (1,833 km; 1,139 miles)|
|Range with max fuel at max range power, allowances as
|A at FL100||1,085 n miles (2,009 km; 1,248 miles)|
|A at FL200||1,295 n miles (2,398 km; 1,490 miles)|
|PERFORMANCE (B: Super Cargomaster; C: Grand Caravan):|
|Max cruising speed:|
|at FL100: B||175 kt (324 km/h; 201 mph)|
|C||184 kt (341 km/h: 212 mph)|
|Stalling speed, power off:|
|flaps up: B, C||78 kt (145 km/h; 90 mph)|
|flaps down: B, C||61 kt (113 km/h; 71 mph)|
|Max rate of climb at S/L: B||282 m (925 ft)/min|
|C||297 m (975 ft)/min|
|Service ceiling: B||6,950 m (22,800 ft)|
|C||7,220 m (23,700 ft)|
|TO run: B||428 m (1,405 ft)|
|C||416 m (1,365 ft)|
|T-O to 15 ra (50 ft)- B||762 m (2,500 ft)|
|C||738 m (2,420 ft)|
|Landing from 15 m (50 ft), without propeller reversal:|
|B||530 m (1,740 ft)|
|C||547 m (1,795 ft)|
|Landing run, without propeller reversal:|
|B||279 m (915 ft)|
|C||290 m (950 ft)|
|Range with max fuel, max cruise power, allowances for
start, taxi, climb and descent, plus 45 min reserves:
|B||862 n miles (1,596 km; 992 miles)|
|C||907 n miles (1,679 km; 1,043 miles)|
|at FL180, conditions as above:|
|B||1,044 n miles (1,933 km; 1,201 miles)|
|C||1,109 n miles (2,053 km; 1,276 miles)|
|Range with max fuel, max range power, allowances for
start, taxi, climb and descent, plus 45 min reserves:
|B||963 n miles (1,783 km; 1,108 miles)|
|C||1,026 n miles (1,900 km; 1,180 miles)|
|at FL180, conditions as above:|
|B||1,076 n miles (1,992 km; 1,238 miles)|
|C||1,163 n miles (2,153 km; 1,338 miles)|