English name: Hawk
TYPE: Advanced jet trainer/light attack jet.
PROGRAMME: Design by Institutul de Aviatie at Bucharest started 1975; three prototypes, of which S-001 made first flight 21 December 1985; S-002 was static test airframe; S-003 second flying prototype. Initial production batch of 17 (serial numbers 701-717), deliveries of which began 1988; two of these (708 and 709) completed for proposed avionics upgrade programme with Jaffe Aircraft of USA in 1991, which not pursued; one (712) equipped with Collins avionics in 1992; similar venture with IAI resulted in upgraded IAR-109 Swift prototype (7003, converted S-003), flown in November 1993, but no production of this version ensued. Order for 24 new aircraft with Elbit modernised avionics announced in September 1998 and received Romanian MoD contract in 2000, following first flight of prototype (serial number 718) on 22 May 1997. First upgraded aircraft (718; actually constructed 1994) served as development demonstrator; production deliveries began with 719, which was rolled out on 31 July 2002 and handed over 1 August.
CURRENT VERSIONS: Original IAR-99: Initial production version (17) for Romanian Air Force; in service with 67th Fighter-Bomber Group at Craiova.
Current IAR-99: Elbit (Israel) teamed with Avioane to produce this version as lead-in fighter trainer for Romanian Air Force and for export. US$21 million contract for 24 aircraft announced in September 1998 and contains options for further 16 to follow. First two production aircraft (719 and 720) flown in August and October 2002; 721 and 722 had followed by mid-2003.
Following description applies to this version.
CUSTOMERS: Total of 17 of original production version delivered to Romanian Air Force, of which about 13 believed still in service; deliveries of 24 of current versionbegan in 2002.
COSTS: Current version approximately US$6 million (2002).
DESIGN FEATURES: Typical basic/advanced jet trainer with tandem, stepped cockpits and moderately tapered wings. Provision for armament increases versatility.
Wing section NACA 641A-214 (modified) at centreline; 641A-212 (modified) at tip; dihedral 3° from roots; quarter-chord sweepback 6° 35'; incidence 1° at root. Tail unit sweepback at quarter-chord 34° on fin, 9° 8' on tailplane.
Main feature of Elbit avionics suite is a data transfer system that processes navigational information received via datalink from other aircraft or from a ground station equipped with the same system. This information is presented on a simulated 'virtual radar' display in the cockpit, so that the pilot can be trained in the use of radar without a need for the IAR-99 itself to be fitted with a radar. Current production aircraft have a large blade antenna beneath nose on port side.
FLYING CONTROLS: Conventional and partly assisted. Statically balanced ailerons hydraulically actuated with manual reversion; mass-balanced elevators and rudder actuated mechanically by push/pull rods; servo tab in port aileron, trim tabs in rudder and each elevator, all operated electrically; ailerons deflect 15° up/15° down, elevators 20° up/10° down, rudder 25° to left and right. Hydraulically actuated single-slotted flaps, deflecting 20° for T-O and 40° for landing, retract gradually when airspeed reaches 162 kt (300 km/h; 186 mph); twin hydraulically actuated airbrakes under rear fuselage.
STRUCTURE: All-metal; aluminium honeycomb ailerons/elevators/rudder; semi-monocoque fuselage includes honeycomb panels for fuel tank compartments; machined wing skin panels form integral fuel tanks.
LANDING GEAR: Retractable tricycle type, with single wheel and oleo-pneumatic shock-absorber on each unit. Mainwheels retract inward, castoring nosewheel forward, all being fully enclosed by doors when retracted. Landing light in port wingroot leading-edge. Mainwheels fitted with tubeless tyres, size 552x164-10, pressure 7.5 bar (109 lb/sq in), and hydraulic disc brakes with anti-skid system. Nosewheel has tubeless tyre size 445x150-6, pressure 4.0 bar (58 lb/sq in).
POWER PLANT: One Turbomecanica Romanian-built Rolls-Royce Viper Mk 632-41M turbojet, rated at 17.79 kN (4,000 lb st). Fuel in two flexible bag tanks in centre-fuselage, capacity 900 litres (238 US gallons; 198 Imp gallons) , and four integral tanks between wing spars combined capacity 470 litres (124 US gallons; 103 Imp gallons). Total internal fuel capacity 1,370 litres (362 US gallons; 301 Imp gallons). Gravity refuelling point on top of fuselage. Provision for two drop tanks, each of 225 litres (59.5 US gallons; 49.5 Imp gallons) capacity, on inboard underwing stations. Maximum internal/external fuel capacity 1,820 litres (481 US gallons; 400 Imp gallons).
ACCOMMODATION: Crew of two in tandem, on Martin-Baker Mk 10L zero/zero ejection seats in pressurised and air conditioned cockpit. Rear seat elevated 35 cm (13.8 in). Dual controls standard. One-piece canopy with internal screen, opening sideways to starboard.
SYSTEMS: Engine compressor bleed air for pressurisation, air conditioning, anti-g suit and windscreen anti-icing system, and to pressurise fuel tanks. Hydraulic system, operating at pressure of 206 bar (2,990 lb/sq in), for actuation of landing gear and doors, flaps, airbrakes, ailerons and mainwheel brakes. Emergency hydraulic system for operation of landing gear doors, flaps and wheel brakes. Main electrical system, supplied by 9 kW 28 V DC starter/generator, with 28 V 36 Ah Ni/Cd battery, ensures operation of main systems, in case of emergency, and engine starting. Two static inverters (one 3 kVA and one 750 VA) supply two secondary AC networks: 115 V/400 Hz and 26 V/400 Hz. Oxygen system for two crew for 2 hours 30 minutes.
AVIONICS: Elbit Systems integrated suite, based on MIL-STD-1553B.
Comms: Dual VHF/UHF com: voice-activated intercom; IFF.
Flight: VOR/ILS; DME; ADF; Litton Italia INS with Trimble GPS nav.
Instrumentation: Modular multirole computer; HOTAS controls; head-up display with up-front control panel (HUD/UFCP), plus one LCD MFD and one CRT MFD, in front cockpit; two CRT MFDs (one as ASHM, or aft station HUD monitor) in rear (instructor's) cockpit; dual ADIs with HSIs; radar altimeter; Elta data transfer system (DTS) with pilot's virtual radar display; pilot's and instructor's display and sight helmets (DASH).
Self-defence: Elta RWR and ECM (jammer) pod; chaff/flare dispenser.
ARMAMENT: Five external stores stations. Centreline station can be occupied by ECM, laser designator or aerial reconnaissance pod, a drop fuel tank, or by a twin-barrel 23 mm GSh-23 gun pod with 200 rounds. All armament controlled by stores management system slaved to avionics mission computer. Four underwing hardpoints stressed for loads of 250 kg (551 lb) each. Typical underwing stores can include four 250 kg bombs; four triple carriers each for three 50 kg bombs (or two 100 kg and one 50 kg); laser- or IR-guided bombs (inboard pylons only); R-3, R-13, R-60 or Python 3 AAMs (outer pylons only); four L-16-57 launchers each containing sixteen 57 mm air-to-surface rockets; and auxiliary fuel tanks (see under Power Plant) on inboard pylons.