English name: Ant
TYPE: Agricultural sprayer.
PROGRAMME: PZL-126 prototype (SP-PMA) built by PZL Warszawa-Okecie and made first flight 20 April 1990; this aircraft was used in 1994 to test a modified 44.7 kW (60 hp) PZL-F2A-120-C1 two-cylinder engine driving a two-blade fixed-pitch propeller. It was then withdrawn for rebuilding as the prototype PZL-126P planned operational version, which was also designed and developed at the PZL Warszawa-Okecie factory. Project is funded by Agrolot Foundation; chief designer is Andrzej Słociński. First flight of the PZL-126P (SP-PMB was first envisaged for 1997, but aircraft not completed until 1998, marked 'Mrówka 2001'; first flight was eventually made on 20 October 2000. No later reports received by early 2003, when full flight test programme apparently still awaited availability of funding.
CURRENT VERSIONS: PZL-126P 2001: Under conversion since 1995. Increased wing span and area, more powerful engine, larger fuel tanks and increased payload compared with PZL-126 prototype. Intended as economical carrier of airborne systems for forestry protection (for example, combating pests, identifying diseased vegetation, detecting/controlling forest fires, spreading non-toxic smal-volume selective-action agents for plant protection such as Trichrogramma parasitic wasp eggs laid in eggs of host insect). Other potential applications include environmental monitoring, glider towing and pipeline patrol; the possibility of an unmanned version with NBC detection equipment has also been reported.
Description applies to PZL-126P 2001.
DESIGN FEATURES: Single-engined low-wing monoplane with rectangular tail surfaces; meets requirements of FAR Pt 23. Semi-monocoque fuselage with equipment bay in lower portion aft of cockpit, accessible through hatch; upswept rear fuselage facilitates access to this bay. Quick-fastening lock beneath each wingtip for attachment of integral spraypod between main wing and tip. Aircraft can be dismantled quickly for towing on own landing gear by light all-terrain vehicle.
Wing aerofoil section NASA GA(W)-1; dihedral 3°.
FLYING CONTROLS: Manual. Three-section area-increasing flaps and flaperons on each wing, actuated by pushrods and interconnected by single central system located under cockpit floor; elevator actuated by pushrods, rudder by cables from adjustable rudder pedals; trim tab on elevator, ground-adjustable tab on rudder.
STRUCTURE: All-metal except for GFRP/epoxy engine cowling, laminated wingtips and fairings. Single-spar wings and fixed tail surfaces; wings mounted on fuselage mandrels and offset spars connected with single pin; front part of fuselage has two 'tusks' for engine and nosewheel mounting.
LANDING GEAR: Non-retractable tricycle type. Self-springing cantilever mainwheel legs of duralumin; castoring nosewheel with oleo-pneumatic shock-absorber. Wheel and tyre size 350x135 on all three units. Hydraulic differential mainwheel disc brakes.
POWER PLANT: One 74.6 kW (100 hp) Teledyne Continental O-200A flat-four engine, driving a McCauley 1A100MCM6950 two-blade metal propeller. Integral fuel tank in each wing, combined capacity 180 litres (47.6 US gallons; 39.6 Imp gallons).
ACCOMMODATION: Single-seat cockpit, fitted with airbag enabling in flight seat adjustment. One-piece organic glass moulded canopy, opening sideways to starboard.
SYSTEMS: Hydraulic system for mainwheel brakes only; 24 V electrical system; hand pump to inflate seat cushion.
AVIONICS: Comms: Bendix/King KX 155 com/nav, KY 96A VHF transceiver and KT 76A transponder.
Flight: GPS 95XL global positioning; stall warning system.
Instrumentation: Prototype has IFR capability, but basic version fitted with VFR instrumentation. Instrument panel, with cover, can be lifted up for access to instruments and front part of cockpit.
EQUIPMENT: Spraypod can be fitted to outer end of each main wing panel, inboard of detachable tip. Pod is an integral unit with all necessary attachments for spraying, attached by quick-fastening locks, electric multiplug socket supplying power to atomisers, and electric valve controlling outflow of liquid from tank. Optional third spray unit can be mounted under fuselage. Up to 35 ha (86.5 acres) can be sprayed in one flight with 70 litres (18.5 US gallons; 15.4 Imp gallons) of pesticide delivered at rate of 2 litres (0.53 US gallon; 0.44 Imp gallon)/ha.
Special biological spreader developed for dosing and spreading eggs of Trichrogramma wasp; eggs are carried in capsules in reel of tape covered with thin paper, spreader holding four such reels. Spreader is powered by electric motor and activated or stopped by push-button on throttle lever; 3 kg (6.6 lb) load of capsules is sufficient, at typical dispersal rate of four capsules every 50 m (164 ft) in rows 50 m apart, to seed an area of 800 ha (1,977 acres). Rotational mounting of spreader allows for full deflection and easy replacement of egg reels.
Aircraft can also carry miniaturised equipment such as photographic, video, thermal or other systems, coupled to satellite navigation system, monitoring and recording pictures or other signals from space.