TYPE: Twin-turboprop transport.
PROGRAMME: First flight of Dornier 228-100 prototype (D-IFNS) in Germany 28 March 1981; first flight 228-200 prototype (D-ICDO) 9 May 1981; British CAA certification 17 April 1984, FAR Pt23 and Appendix A Pt 135 11 May 1984, Australian 11 October 1985. European production (including 11 for India), is not described here.
Contract for licensed manufacture of up to 150 Dornier 228s in India signed 29 November 1983; one pattern aircraft supplied complete from Germany; production planned in four phases (six, 10, 10 and 43 aircraft respectively), fourth phase representing full local manufacture after production from locally assembled kits; first Phase 1 Kanpur-assembled aircraft (VT-EJN, c/n 1002) handed over to Vayudoot on 1 November 1985 and made maiden flight on 31 January 1986. Full local manufacture from 18th onwards (CG758, first flight 7 March 1991). Indian production programme dormant from first quarter of 1997, but now continuing with current production (early 2003) of three for Indian Air Force; additional orders from Indian Navy and Coast Guard anticipated at that time. Following discontinuation of German production, worldwide sales and marketing rights held by HAL since November 1998; HAL pursuing export market and anticipates future orders to maintain production for further eight to 10 years. Power plant, landing gear and some avionics also manufactured by HAL to preserve self-sufficiency.
CURRENT VERSIONS: Regional Airliner: Ten 228-201s (five each by Dornier and HAL) delivered to Vayudoot.
Maritime Surveillance: Thirty-six ordered from Indian Coast Guard (including three from Germany, delivered from July 1986); CG754 first flight 18 February 1988; first 18 from Indian production are 228-101s and were delivered by March 1997. Go-ahead for next batch (seven 228-201s) received in September 1999; these ordered under US$72 million contract in early 2000, of which all delivered in basic configuration by early 2003, with sensor integration then under way. One also to Mauritius Coast Guard in 1990.
In service with Coast Guard Air Squadrons at Daman and Chennai for coastal, environmental and antismuggling patrol; 360o Marec 2 search radar under fuselage (replaced in 15 aircraft by Super Marec and last seven to have 360o Elta radar); Matra infra-red/ultraviolet linescanner for pollution detection. Search and rescue liferafts, searchlight, hand-held aerial camera, bubble windows, side-mounted loudhailer, marine markers, and provision for two Micronair underwing spraypods to combat oil spills; in-flight-openable roller door for parajumping/paradropping. Normal crew two pilots, radar operator and observer. Optional armament includes two underwing 7.62 mm twin-gun pods.
Anti-ship: Indian Navy has acquired 25 specially equipped Dornier 228-201s (ordered in batches of five, 10 and 10). Deliveries began (IN221) on 24 August 1991 for service with INAS 310 ('Cobras') at Dabolim; last batch of 10 completed in 2000. First two batches have Super Marec 360o radar; Elta EL/M-2022A search radar in second batch of 10 (integration of eight completed by early 2003). Apart from radar (360o scan, near-SAR/MT1 and track-while-scan) under forward fuselage, current aircraft have IAI Tamam Airborne Multimission Optronic Stabilised Payload (AMOSP) (TV/FLIR/laser range-finder) ball turret in starboard main gear fairing; air/ground data downlink; and cabin consoles for four systems operators with MFDs and moving map display. Further Indian Navy orders expected. Utility transport: Indian Air Force received 25 228-201s: deliveries started (HM667 and HM668) 15 December 1987 to Nos. 41 'Otters' and 59 'Hornbills' Squadrons; can carry 21 field-equipped troops on inward-facing composites folding seats; large HAL-developed cargo double door, to meet IAF requirement, at rear, port side. Expectation of IAF follow-on order for further 18, but only three extra aircraft included in batch due for delivery by March 2003.
Executive/Air taxi: Various configurations including six- or 10-seat executive or 15-passenger air taxi, with customised, cabin attendant, work table and galley/wardrobe/lavatory; built-in APU for air conditioning and lighting in flight or on ground. One (VT-EIX) for Indian Oil and Natural Gas Commission.
CUSTOMERS: HAL deliveries are given in the accompanying table.
DESIGN FEATURES: Optimised for efficient cruising flight. High wing for propeller clearance, despite minimised fuselage ground clearance and pannier-mounted landing gear. Variable sweep wing leading-edge; unswept tailplane; sweptback fin with dorsal fillet.
Special Dornier wing with Do A-5 supercritical aerofoil; 8o leading-edge sweep on outer wing panels; raked tips; no dihedral or anhedral.
FLYING CONTROLS: Conventional and manual. Variable incidence tailplane with actuator switch on aileron wheel; horn-balanced elevators; rudder trim tab; single-slotted Fowler flaps augmented by drooping ailerons; two strakes under rear fuselage for low-speed stability.
STRUCTURE: Two-spar wing box; mainly light alloy structure, but with CFRP wingtips and tips of tailplane and elevators; GFRP nosecone, tips of rudder and fin; Kevlar landing gear fairings and in part of wing ribs; hybrid composites in fin leading-edge; fuselage unpressurised, built in five sections.
LANDING GEAR: Retractable tricycle type, with single mainwheels and twin-wheel nose unit; main units retract inward into fuselage fairings; hydraulically steerable nosewheels retract forward; Goodyear wheels and tyres, 25.5x8.75-10 (650x220-10) (10/12 ply) or 8.50-10 (10 ply) on mainwheels, 6.00-6 (8 ply), on nosewheels.
POWER PLANT: HAL-built Dornier 228-201s have two HAL built Honeywell TPE331-5-252D turboprops, each flat rated at 533 kW (715 hp) to ISA +18oC and driving a Hartzell four-blade fully feathering propeller with reverse pitch. Post-2000 production aircraft have HAL-built TPE331-10 series engines; performance improvements of -5 engines through turbine blade enhancements also planned.
Primary wing box forms integral fuel tank with standard usable capacity 2,386 litres (630 US gallons; 525 Imp gallons); can be increased to 2,850 litres (753 US gallons; 627 Imp gallons). Oil capacity per engine 5.9 litres (1.56 US gallons; 1.30 Imp gallons).
ACCOMMODATION: Crew of one or two; pilots' seats adjustable fore and aft; two-abreast seating with central aisle; maximum capacity 19 (more in military versions); flight deck door on port side; combined two-section passenger and freight door, with integral steps, on port side of cabin at rear; one emergency exit on port side of cabin, two on starboard side; baggage compartment at rear of cabin, accessible externally and from cabin; capacity 210 kg (463 lb). Enlarged baggage door optional; additional baggage space in fuselage nose, with separate access; capacity 120 kg (265 lb); modular units using seat rails for rapid changes of role.
SYSTEMS: Entire accommodation heated (by engine bleed air) and ventilated. Hydraulic system, pressure 207 bar (3,000 lb/sq in), for landing gear, brakes and nosewheel steering; hand pump for emergency landing gear extension. Primary 28 V DC electrical system, supplied by two 28 V 250 A engine-driven starter/generators and two 24 V 25 Ah Ni/Cd batteries; two 350 VA inverters supply 115/26 V 400 Hz AC system. Air intake anti-icing standard; de-icing system optional for wing and tail unit leading-edges, fuselage, windscreen and propellers.
AVIONICS: Comms: Standard avionics include Rockwell Collins dual VHF-22A and single HF-230 com; Becker audio selector and intercom; Motorola Selcal; H R Smith ELT-503.
Radar: HAL-built Primus 500 weather radar; Elta or Super Marec 360o search radars.
Flight: Dual Rockwell Collins VIR-32A VOR/ILS; dual or single Rockwell Collins ADF-62A; dual or single Bendix/King KNI 582 RMI indicators; dual or single Rockwell Collins DME-42. Bendix/King KFC 250 autopilot optional to permit single-pilot IFR operation.
Instrumentation: IFR instrumentation standard, comprising dual Honeywell GH14B gyro horizons; dual ADIs; dual VSIs.
EQUIPMENT: Standard equipment includes complete internal and external lighting, hand fire extinguisher, first aid kit, gust control locks and tiedown kit. Stolers attachment point beneath each wing outboard of engine nacelle.
ARMAMENT: Provision for fun pod, other weapons or mission pod under each wing.