RAF/FAA designations: Hawk T. Mks 1 and 1A
US Navy designation: T-45A and T45C Goshawk
Canadian Forces designation: CT-155
TYPE: Advanced jet trainer/light attack jet.
PROGRAMME: HS P1182 Hawk first flew 21 August 1974; first generation Hawk remains available and is marketed with advanced 100 Series and single-seat 200 Series (detailed separately) to meet customers' requirements; Hawk design leadership transferred from Kingston to Brough 1988, and final assembly and flight test from Dunsfold to Warton 1989. Brough subsequently assumed responsibility for final assembly, although first flights still at Warton.
Hawk 50 Series main exports made December 1980 to October 1985; largely supplanted by 60 Series; Hawk 100 enhanced ground attack export model announced mid-1982; first flight of 100 Series aerodynamic prototype (G-HAWK/ZA101 converted as Mk 100 demonstrator) 21 October 1987; trials of wingtip Sidewinder rails started at Warton in April 1990. Warton assembly line officially opened 24 October 1991.
CURRENT VERSIONS: Hawk T. Mk 1: Two-seater for RAF advanced flying and weapon training; 23.1 kN (5,200 lb st) Adour 151-01 (-02 in Red Arrows aircraft) non-afterburning turbofan; two dry underwing hardpoints; underbelly 30 mm gun pack; three-position flaps; simple weapon sight in some aircraft of No. 4 FTS. Following basic Tucano stage, future RAF fast-jet pilots undertake 100 hours of advanced flying, weapons and tactical training with No. 4 FTS at Valley. Hawks introduced to navigator training syllabus at No. 6 FTS, Finningley; first delivery 10 September 1992; role to No. 4 FTS in 1995. No. 100 Squadron received 15 Mks 1/1A from September 1991, replacing Canberras in target-towing role; initial seven (subsequently increased to 15) Mk 1s loaned to Royal Navy's Fleet Requirements and Air Direction Unit (now Fleet Support Air Tasking Organisation) at Culdrose, first arriving on 6 April 1994. In August 1996, Skyforce Avionics Ltd Skymap II GPS moving map displays were received for Hawks of the Red Arrows and No. 100 Squadron.
Hawk T. Mk 1A: Contract January 1983 to wire 89 Hawks (including Red Arrows) for AIM-9L Sidewinder on each inboard wing pylon and optional activation of previously unused outer wing hardpoints; last conversion redelivered 30 May 1986; 72 (reduced to 50 by 1993 defence cuts) NATO-declared, for point defence and participation in RAF's Mixed Fighter Force, to accompany radar-equipped Tornado ADVs on medium-range air defence sorties.
RAF Hawk re-wing programme began 1989; initial 85 wings completed by BAe in 1993; delivery of second batch of 59 began November 1993 and completed in 1995. Rebuild programme by BAe for 80 RAF Hawks authorised 27 December 1998 to replace centre and rear fuselage by Mk 65 standard structures, extending service life to 2010; work undertaken at DARA St Athan and BAE Systems at Brough; first aircraft, XX348, redelivered 11 April 2000; last was XX242, delivered to Red Arrows on 27 August 2003. Aircraft comprised 11 Mk 1s, 62 Mk 1As and seven Mk 1Ws, retaining original designations. (Sole external indication of this upgrade is displacement of rear strobe light from centreline.) Avionics upgrade plans being formulated in Staff Requirement (Air) 449; primary aim is 'glass cockpit'. In 2003, UK MoD fleet included 132 Hawks.
Hawk T. Mk 1W: Following re-winging, 24 RAF Hawk T. Mk 1s gained the ability to carry stores on two underwing pylons, although not the centreline gun pod. The alternative designation T. Mk 1FTS is also used for this modification.
Hawk 50 Series: Initial export version with 23.1 kN (5,200 lb st) Adour 851 turbofan; maximum operating weight increased by 30 per cent, disposable load by 70 per cent, range by 30 per cent; revised tailcone shape to improve directional stability at high speed; larger nose equipment bay; four wing pylons, all configured for single or twin store carriage; each pylon cleared for 515 kg (1,135 lb) load; wet inboard pylons for 455 litre (122 US gallon; 100 Imp gallon) fuel tanks; improved cockpit, with angle of attack indication, fully aerobatic twin-gyro AHRS and new weapon control panel; optional braking parachute; suitable for day VMC ground attack and armed reconnaissance with camera/sensor pod.
T-45 Goshawk: US Navy version; built by Boeing. Described separately.
Hawk 60 Series: Development of 50 Series with 25.4 kN (5,700 lb st) Adour 861 turbofan; leading-edge devices and four-position flaps to improve lift capability; low-friction nose leg, strengthened wheels and tyres, and adaptive anti-skid system; 591 litre (156 US gallon; 130 Imp gallon) drop tanks; provision for Sidewinder or Magic AAMs; maximum operating weight increased by further 17 per cent over 50 Series, disposable load by 33 per cent and range by 30 per cent; improved field performance, acceleration, rate of climb and turn rate. Mk 67 is 'long-nosed' version with nosewheel steering, supplied to South Korea. Abu Dhabi upgraded 15 surviving Mk 63s to Mk 63A/B from 1991, incorporating Adour Mk 871 and new combat wing (four pylons and wingtip AAM rails); first two rebuilds at Brough; remainder at Al Dhafra. Surviving Kuwaiti Hawks were refurbished at Dunsfold in 1998-2000.
Description applies to Hawk 60 Series, except where otherwise specified.
Hawk 100 Series: Enhanced ground attack development of 60 Series, announced mid-1982, to exploit Hawk's stores carrying capability; two-seater, with perhaps pilot only on combat missions; 26.0 kN (5,845 lb st) Adour Mk871 turbofan; new combat wing incorporating fixed leading-edge droop for increased lift and manoeuvrability from M0.3 to M0.7; full-width flap vanes; manually selected combat flaps; detail changes to wing dressing; structural provision for wingtip missile pylons; MIL-STD-1553B databus; advanced Smiths Industries HUDWAC and new air data sensor package with optional laser ranging and FLIR in extended nose; improved weapons management system allowing preselection in flight and display of weapon status; manual or automatic weapon release; passive radar warning; HOTAS controls; full-colour multipurpose CRT display in each cockpit; provision for ECM pod.
Demonstrator ZA101. Production prototype Mk 102D (ZJ100) flown 29 February 1992. Early orders from Abu Dhabi (placed 1989), Indonesia (signed June 1993), Malaysia (signed 10 December 1990) and Oman (signed 30 July 1990). FLIR, laser ranger and Sky Guardian RWR in Omani aircraft.
Selected by Australia in November 1996 as next-generation laed-in fighter trainer; order signed 24 June 1997 for 33 aircraft; Australian Hawk Mk 127s have new, advanced instrumentation resembling that of the F-18 Hornet and including an integrated Smiths system of three 127 mm (5 in) square colour screens in each cockpit, HUD, upgraded mission computer, engine life computer and stores management system. First Australian Hawk (A27-01) flew (in UK, temporarily as ZJ632) on 16 December 1999. First Australian-assembled aircraft flew (A27-010) on 10 May 2000; final Australian production delivery 8 August 2001; last UK-built aircraft delivered 5 October 2001.
BAE, Bombardier and partners T-6A Harvard II and Hawk Mk 115 as equipment of Canadian-based NATO Flying Training in Canada (NFTC) programme; contract agreed 17 November 1997 and formally issued on 12 May 1998 for 18, plus eight options, two of latter being taken up in 1999; further two stated to be required in early 2000, after Singapore joined programme; order total increased to 22 by early 2002. First aircraft, 155201, arrived in Canada 4 July 2000; officially received 6 July; instructor training began 12 July 2000.
Hawk LIFT: Variant of Series 100 as lead-in fighter trainer (LIFT). Features include 'combat wing', Adour Mk871 or Mk951 engine, new three MFD 'glass cockpit' with NVG compatibility, MIL-STD-1553B digital databus, revised mission planning system/data transfer unit, INS/GPS, OBOGS, APU, HUMS, new HUD and HOTAS controls. Provision for FLIR and aerial refuelling. Initial customer is South Africa (Mk 120); first SAAF Hawk (and sole aircraft assembled in UK) first flew (ZJ970) 2 October 2003.
Offered to RAF (Mk 128) to meet MFTS (military flying training system) requirement for some 31 to enter service in 2007 as lead-in to Eurofighter Typhoon, having open-architecture avionics and Adour Mk951 engines. Maximum weapon load 3,000 kg (6,614 lb). On 30 July 2003, BAE announced receipt of potential £800 million contract for 20 Mk 128s and 24 options, deliveries beginning in 2006, following first flight in late 2004/early 2005.
Hawk 200 Series: Single-seat multirole version.
Hawk 100NDA: New Development Aircraft; based on Mk 127. Prototype, and testbed for Adour Mk 951 turbofan, first flew (ZJ951) at Warton 5 August 2002 (initially with interim standard engine). To Bredasdorp, South Africa, for further trials associated with SAAF hawk Mk 120; first flew with Mk951 engine in May 2003.
CUSTOMERS: BAE delivered 20 Hawks in 1996 and 22 in 1997; none in 1998; deliveries resumed in 1999 with 10 to Indonesia before supply of remaining six was suspended by UK government embargo of 11 September 1999; deliveries re-authorised in early 2000, but without certain US-sourced components. Deliveries in 2000 totalled 16 (eight Australian and eight Canadian), not including Australian assembly. In 2001, UK production line delivered 13 (three to Australia and 10 to Canada); 2002 production comprised two to Canada and one company trials aircraft.
Hawk LIFT selected for purchase by South Africa, as announced 18 November 1998; order for 12, plus 12 options, announced 15 September 1999 and signed 3 December 1999; these to be first Hawks with Adour Mk951 engines. Bahrain announced selection of Hawk on 22 July 2002; contract signed 28 January 2003; version based on Mk 127, but with Adour Mk951 engine; six aircraft, plus six options; part of training programme also including Slingsby Firefly piston lightplanes.
India requested quotation in September 1999 for 92 Hawks, later amended to 66, of which eight kits and 42 complete aircraft to be assembled by HAL at Bangalore, and pricing negotiations were continuing in 2002, following Anglo-Indian political reaffirmation of purchase plans on 12 December 2000; purchase agreement announced 3 September 2003 for 24 UK-built Hawks and 42 assembled in India; designation Mk 115Y.
Unconfirmed requirements reportedly include: Abu Dhabi, seven further Hawk Mk63s; Brunei, six Hawk 100s and four Hawk 200s; Kuwait, six attrition replacements; Philippines, commitment announced August 1991 for 12 Hawks, but abandoned.
COSTS: South African purchase of 24 Hawk LIFTs estimated at R4.7 billion (1998). Canadian contract for 20 valued at £400 million (1999). Hawk centre/rear fuselage replacement for 80 RAF aircraft valued at £100+ million (2000). Eventual 44 RAF Mk 128s valued at £800 million (2003).
DESIGN FEATURES: Fully aerobatic two-seat advanced jet trainer, adaptable for ground attack and air defence; design capable of other optional roles, with wing improvements on developed Series to enhance combat efficiency. Low wing and mid-mounted, anhedral, sweptback tailplane; air intake on each side of fuselage, forward of wing leading-edge; single non-afterburning engine; elevated rear cockpit to enhance forward view; two strakes below rear fuselage; smurfs (refer Hawk 200 entry) on 100 Series; optional underwing hardpoints; wingtip AAM rails (100 Series).
Wing thickness/chord ratio 10.9 per cent at root, 9 per cent at tip; dihedral 2°; sweepback 26° on leading-edge, 21°30' at quarter-chord.
FLYING CONTROLS: Conventional and assisted. Ailerons and one-piece all-moving tailplane actuated hydraulically by tandem actuators; rudder manually actuated, with electric trim tab. Hydraulically actuated double-slotted flaps, outboard 300 mm (12 in) of flap vanes normally deleted; small fence on each wing leading-edge; 100 and 200 Series use special 'combat wing' with full-width flap vanes (refer Hawk 200 entry); large airbrake under rear fuselage, aft of wings. Hydraulic yaw gamper on 100 Series rudder.
STRUCTURE: Aluminium alloy; one-piece wing, with machined torsion box of two main spars, auxiliary spar, ribs and skins with integral stringers; most of box forms integral fuel tank; honeycomb-filled ailerons; composites wing fences; frames and stringers fuselage. Wing attached to fuselage by six bolts.
LANDING GEAR: Wide-track, hydraulically retractable tricycle type, with single wheel on each unit. AP Precision Hydraulics oleos and jacks. Main units retract inward into wing, ahead of front spar; castoring (optionally power-steered) nosewheel retracts forward. Dunlop mainwheels, brakes and tyres size 6.50-10 (14 ply) tubeless, pressure 9.86 bar (143 lb/sq in). (Hawk Srs 60 and 100 mainwheel pressure 17.23 bar; 250 lb/sq in at 9,100 kg; 20,061 lb T-O weight.) Nosewheel and tyre size 16x4.4 (8 ply) tubeless, pressure 8.27 bar (120 lb/sq in). Tail bumper fairing under rear fuselage. Anti-skid wheel brakes. Tail braking parachute, diameter 2.64 m (8 ft 8 in), on Mks 52/53 and all 60 and 100 Series aircraft.
POWER PLANT: One Rolls-Royce Turbomeca Adour non-afterburning turbofan, as described under Current Versions. Adour Mk 861A for Switzerland assembled locally by Sulzer Brothers. Adour Mk 951, available for new-build or retrofitted Hawks rated at 31.1 kN (7,000 lb st) and has doubled TBO of 4,000 hours. Engine starting by Microturbo integral gas-turbine starter. Fuel in one fuselage bag tank of 832 litres (220 US gallons; 183 Imp gallons) capacity and integral wing tank of 823 litres (217 US gallons; 181 Imp gallons); total fuel capacity 1,655 litres (437 US gallons; 364 Imp gallons). Pressure refuelling point near front of port engine air intake trunk; gravity point on top of fuselage. Provision for carrying one 455 or 591 litre (120 or 156 US gallon; 100 or 130 Imp gallon) drop tank on each inboard underwing pylon, according to Series.
ACCOMMODATION: Crew of two in tandem under one-piece, fully transport, acrylic canopy, opening sideways to starboard. Fixed front windscreen able to withstand a 0.9 kg (2 lb) bird at 454 kt (841 km/h; 523 mph). Improved front windscreen fitted retrospectively to RAF Hawks, able to withstand a 1 kg (2.2 lb) bird at 528 kt (978 km/h; 607 mph); this installed on all current export aircraft. Separate internal screen in front of rear cockpit. Rear seat elevated. Martin-Baker Mk 10LH zero/zero rocket-assisted ejection seats, with MDC (miniature detonating cord) system to break canopy before seats eject. MDC can also be operated from outside the cockpit for ground rescue. Dual controls standard. Entire accommodation pressurised, heated and air conditioned.
SYSTEMS: BAE Systems cockpit air conditioning and pressurisation systems, using engine bleed air. Two hydraulic systems; flow rate: System 1, 36.4 litres (9.6 US gallons; 8.0 Imp gallons)/min; System 2, 22.7 litres (6.0 US gallons; 5.0 Imp gallons)/min. Systems pressure 207 bar (3,000 lb/sq in). System 1 for actuation of control jacks, flaps, airbrake, landing gear and anti-skid wheel brakes. Compressed nitrogen accumulators provide emergency power for flaps and landing gear at pressure of 2.75 to 5.50 bar (40 to 80 lb/sq in). System 2 dedicated to powering flying controls. Hydraulic accumulator for emergency operation of wheel brakes. Pop-up Hamilton Sundstrand ram air turbine in upper rear fuselage provides emergency hydraulic power for flying controls in event of engine or No. 2 pump failure. No pneumatic system.
DC electrical power from single 12 kW 30 V DC brushless generator, with two 3 kVA 115/26 V 400 Hz three-phase inverters to provide AC power and two batteries for up to 20 minutes of standby power. Gaseous oxygen system for crew; optional Hamilton Sundstrand (HS Marston) OBOGS first installed in Australian Hawk Mk 127s from 2000.
AVIONICS: Comms: Mk 1/Srs 50 includes Sylvania UHF and VHF; Cossor 2720 Mk 10A IFF in Finnish aircraft; Srs 60 has Rockwell Collins UHF and VHF, Magnavox UHF and Raytheon 2720 IFF; Srs 100 has Rockwell Collins AN/ARC-182 U/VHF, Magnavox AN/ARC-164 UHF and Raytheon 4720 IFF. Australian Mk 127 has twin Rockwell Collins AN/ARC-210 UHF/VHF and Raytheon 4720 IFF.
Flight: Mk 1/Srs 50 with Raytheon CAT 7000 Tacan, Cossor ILS having CILS.75/76 localiser/glideslope receiver and marker receiver; Rockwell Collins VOR/ILS and ADF, Rockwell Collins Tacan, Smiths-Newmark 6000-05 AHRS and Smiths radar altimeter in Srs 60; Srs 100 has BAE Systems IN300 inertial platform, Rockwell Collins AN/ARC-118 Tacan, Rockwell Collins VIR-31A VOR/ILS and Smiths 0103-KTX-1 radar altimeter, all integrated via dual redundant MIL-STD-1553B databus. Optional Skyforce Skymap II GPS-driven moving map in some RAF Hawks.
Instrumentation: Smiths-Newmark compass, BAE Systems gyros and inverter, two Honeywell RAI-4 4 in (100 mm) remote attitude indicators and magnetic detector system in Mk 1/Srs 50; Smiths 1500 Series HUDWAC in Srs 100; BAE Systems F.195 weapon sight in approximately 90 RAF aircraft; BAE ISIS 195 sight in Srs 50 and Srs 60, except Saab RGS2 in Finnish Mk 51.
Mission: BAE Systems camera and recorder in F.195-equipped RAF aircraft (requirement announced December 1997 to re-equip 41 with video recorders by late 1999); Vinten camera and recorder in Srs 50 and Srs 60. Srs 100 has Smiths 3000 Series colour MFD, GEC data transfer system and Vinten colour video recording system; plus BAE Systems Type 105H laser range-finder; optional FLIR.
Self-defence (Series 100 only): Racal Prophet RWR in Mk 102s of Abu Dhabi; BAE Systems Sky Guardian in Indonesian, Malaysian and Omani aircraft, and retrofitted to Abu Dhabi's Mk 63s; optional chaff/flare dispenser at base of fin.
ARMAMENT: Underfuselage centreline-mounted 30 mm BAE Systems Aden Mk 4 cannon with 120 rounds (VKT 12.7 mm machine gun beneath Finnish aircraft), and two or four hardpoints under wing, according to Series. Provision for pylon in place of ventral gun pack. In RAF training roles, normal maximum external load is about 680 kg (1,500 lb), but the uprated Hawk 60 and 100 Series are cleared for an external load of 3,000 kg (6,614 lb), or 500 kg (1,102 lb) at 8 g. Typical weapon loadings on 60 Series include 30 mm or 12.7 mm centreline gun pod and four packs each containing eighteen 68 mm rockets; centreline reconnaissance pod and four packs each containing twelve 81 mm rockets; five 1.000 lb free-fall or retarded bombs; four launchers each containing four 100 mm rockets; nine 250 lb or 250 kg bombs; thirty-six 80 lb runway denial or tactical attack bobmbs; five 600 lb cluster bombs; four Sidewinder or two Magic air-to-air missiles; or four CBLS 100/200 carries, each containing four practice bombs and four rockets. Vinten reconnaissance pod available for centre pylon. Similar options on 100 Series, plus wingtip air-to-air missiles. Mk 102s of Abu Dhabi/UAEAF can carry (but not designate for) two Alenia Marconi PGM-500 ASMs.