Spanish Air Force designation: T.18
TYPE: Long-range business tri-jet.
PROGRAMME: Falcon 900 announced 27 May 1983; first flight of prototype (F-GIDE Spirit of Lafayette) 21 September 1984, second aircraft (F-GFJC) 30 August 1985; flew non-stop 4,305 n miles (7,973 km; 4,954 miles) Paris to Little Rock, Arkansas, September 1985; returned Teterboro, New Jersey, to Istres, France, at M0.84; French and US certification March 1986, including status close to FAR Pts 25 and 55 for damage tolerance of entire airframe.
Prototype Falcon 900 in use as testbed (first flight 12 April 1994) for new laminar flow wing section intended to provide significant reductions in drag. New section installed as sleeve on inner wing and designed to demonstrate hybrid laminar flow with boundary layer suction via seven channels in laser-drilled titanium skin over some 10 per cent chord of upper wing surface. Following test programme, modified aircraft has returned to Dassault Falcon Service to validate laminar flow capability under normal commercial operating conditions. The 250th Falcon 900 series aircraft was delivered in mid-2000.
CURRENT VERSIONS: Falcon 900B: French and UK certification received end 1991; complies with FAR Pt 36 Stage III and ICAO 16 noise requirements; approved for Cat. II approaches, for operations from unpaved fields; re-engined with TFE73I-5BR-1C turbofans, to give 5.5 per cent power increase; initial cruising altitude 11,855 m (39,000 ft) and NBAA IFR range increased by 100 n miles (185 km: 115 miles); retrofit offered to existing operators. Supplanted by Falcon 900C.
Falcon 900C: Announced 26 June 1998. Combines airframe, engines and cabin of 900B with Honeywell Primus 2000 avionics of 900EX, but without autothrottles; 900B F-WWFP/F-GRDP (c/n 169) served as prototype for certification; first flown 17 December 1998; deliveries began in December 1999 (c/n 180 to Sony Aviation Corp in USA), replacing 900B on production line. French DGAC certification achieved 15 June 1999, with FAA certification following on 26 August 1999 .
Detailed description applies to Falcon 900C, except where indicated.
Falcon 900EX: Long-range development of 900B, announced October 1994. Re-engined with 22.24 kN (5,000 lb st) (ISA+17°C) Honeywell TFE731-60 turbofans, to give 5.8 per cent increase in retained thrust at 12,200 m (40,000 ft) and more than 8 per cent improvement in cruise specific fuel consumption. Engine nacelles, pylons, thrust reversers and portions of centre engine S-duct redesigned; maximum fuel capacity increased to 11,865 litres (3,134 US gallons; 2,610 Imp gallons) by addition of centre-fuselage tank of 591 kg (1,303 lb) capacity and tank in rear fuselage, capacity 240 kg (530 lb).
Upgraded standard avionics comprise fully integrated Honeywell Primus 2000 suite with five-tube 20 x 17.75 cm (8x 7 in) colour EFIS; one engine instrument display; three IC-800 integrated avionics computers; dual FMZ-2000 flight management systems with a third optional; dual fail-operational autopilots; T-O to landing autothrottle; Honeywell EGPWS; dual Laseref III inertial reference systems with third optional; Primus colour weather radar; optional single or dual 12-channel GPS, multichannel satcom, communications management unit (CMU) and Flight Dynamics HGS-2850 head-up display. Dassault EASy integrated flight deck with four 330 x 254 mm (13 x 10 in) active matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCDs) to be introduced on 900EX from 2003. First flight with EASy cockpit was made by F-WNCD (c/n 97) on 22 February 2002.
Risk-sharing partners, representing 20 per cent of total development investment, are Honeywel l (engines and primary avionics), SABCA (centre engine intake cowlings), Hellenic Aircraft Industries (rear fuselage fuel tank), Latecoere (T5 fuselage section and engine pylons), and Alenia (nacelles and centre engine thrust reverser).
Prototype (F-WREX) rolled out 13 March 1995; first flight 1 June 1995; flew Luton, England, to Las Vegas, Nevada, non-stop on 24 September 1995, completing the 4,700 n mile (8,704 km; 5,409 mile) flight in 11 hours 40 minutes including 30 minutes hold for air traffic delays; DGAC certification 31 May 1996; FAA approval granted 19 July after 350-hour flight test programme; first customer delivery to Anheuser-Busch Companies Inc (N200L) 1 November 1996; production aircraft delivered to Little Rock, Arkansas, for outfitting.
Japan MSA: Two Falcon 900s for long-range maritime surveillance entered service with the Japan Maritime Safety Agency September 1989; US search radar, special communications radio, operations control station, U-125A-style search windows and drop hatch for sonobuoys, markers and flares.
CUSTOMERS: Total 201 Falcon 900s and 124 Falcon 900EXs delivered to completion centres by 31 March 2003. Government/VIP versions operated by Algeria, Australia, Belgium, Equatorial Guinea, France, Gabon, Italy, Malaysia, Nigeria, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Syria and United Arab Emirates. Production totalled 20 in 1998, 24 in 1999, 29 (six 900C and 23 900EX) in 2000, 27 (six 900C and 21 900EC) in 2001, 21 (four 900C and 17 900EX) in 2002, and four (two 900C and two 900EX) in the first three months of 2003.
COSTS: Standard equipped 900C US$27.81 million (2001); 900EX US$31.19 million (2001).
DESIGN FEATURES: Larger cross-section and cabin length than Falcon 50; added economy and further power increase of engines achieved by mixer compound nozzle tailpipe, mixing cold and hot flows.
Wing adapted from Falcon 50 but increased span and area, and optimised for M0.84 cruise; compound leading-edge sweep (24° 50' to 29° at quarter-chord); dihedral 0° 30'.
FLYING CONTROLS: Fully powered flying controls with artificial feel and variable-incidence tailplane as for Falcon 50; full-span slats and double-slotted Fowler flaps; three-position airbrakes.
STRUCTURE: Design and manufacture computer assisted; damage-tolerant structure; extensive use of carbon fibre and aramid (Kevlar); Kevlar radome, wingroot fairings and tailcone; secondary rear cabin pressure bulkhead allows access to baggage in flight and additional protection against pressure loss. Nosewheel doors of Kevlar; mainwheel doors of carbon fibre. Kevlar air intake trunk for centre engine, and rear cowling for side engines. Carbon fibre central cowling around all three engines.
New horizontal tail surface featuring cast titanium central box with resin transfer moulding composite spars and carbon fibre skin panels, resulting in a 13.6 kg (30 lb) reduction in weight, certified by the DGAC in December 1999 and introduced as standard on Falcon 900C and 900EX from December 2000 deliveries.
LANDING GEAR: Retractable tricycle type by Messier-Bugatti, with twin wheels on each unit. Hydraulic retraction, main units inward, nosewheels forward. Oleo-pneumatic shock-absorbers. Mainwheels fitted with Michelin radial tyres size 29x7.7-15, pressure: 900C 13.60 bar (197 lb/sq in), 900EX 13.80 bar (200 lb/sq in). Nosewheel tyres size 17.5x5.75R8, pressure: 900C 10.20 bar (148 lb/sq in, 900EX 10.90 bar (158 lb/sq in). Hydraulic nosewheel steering (±60° for taxying, ±180° for towing). Messier-Bugatti triple-disc carbon brakes and anti-skid system. Minimum ground turning radius (about nosewheels) 14.55 m (47 ft 83¾ in).
POWER PLANT: Three Honeywell TFE731-5BR-1C turbofans, each rated at 21.13 kN (4,750 lb st) at ISA + 10°C. Thrust reverser on centre engine. Fuel in two integral tanks in wings, capacity 3,428 litres (906 US gallons; 754 Imp gallons) and 3,437 litres (908 US gallons; 756 Imp gallons) forward fuselage tank, capacity 2,061 litres (544 US gallons; 453 Imp gallons), and rear fuselage tank capacity 1,899 litres (502 US gallons; 418 Imp gallons), for total fuel capacity of 10,825 litres.
ACCOMMODATION: Type III emergency exit on starboard side of cabin permits wide range of layouts for up to 19 passengers. Flight deck for two pilots, with central jump-seat. Flight deck separated from cabin by door, with crew wardrobe and baggage locker on either side. Galley at front of main cabin, on starboard side opposite main cabin door. Passenger area is divided into three lounges. Forward zone has four 'sleeping' swivel chairs in facing pairs with tables. Centre zone is dining area, with two double seats facing a transverse table. On starboard side, storage cabinet contains foldaway bench, allowing five to six persons to be seated around table, while leaving emergency exit clear. In rear zone, inward-facing three-seat settee on starboard side converts into a bed. On port side, two armchairs are separated by a table. At rear of cabin, a door leads to toilet compartment, on starboard side, and a second structural plug door to large rear baggage area. Baggage door is electrically actuated.
Other interior configurations available. Alternative eight-passenger configuration has bedroom at rear and three personnel seats in forward zone. A 15-passenger layout divides a VIP area at rear from six (three-abreast) chairs forward; full fuel can still be carried with 15 passengers. The 18-passenger scheme has four rows of three-abreast airline-type seats forward, and VIP lounge with two chairs and settee aft. Many optional items, including additional windows, front toilet unit, video system with one or more monitors, 'Airshow 200' navigation display system, compact disc deck, aft cabin partition, one or two couches in aft cabin convertible to bed (s), storage cabinet in baggage hold, aft longitudinal table, individual listening devices for passengers, lifejackets and rafts.
SYSTEMS: Air conditioning system uses engine bleed air or air from Honeywell GTCP36-150 APU installed in rear fuselage. Softair pressurisation system, with maximum differential of 0.64 bar (9.3 lb/sq in), maintains sea level cabin environment to height of 7,620 m (25,000 ft), and cabin equivalent of 2,440 m (8,000 ft) at 15,550 m (51,000 ft). Cold air supply by single oversize air cycle unit. Two independent hydraulic systems, pressure 207 bar (3,000 lb/sq in), with three engine-driven pumps and one emergency electric pump, actuate primary flying controls, flaps, slats, landing gear retraction, wheel brakes, airbrakes, nosewheel steering and thrust reverser. Bootstrap hydraulic reservoirs. DC electrical system supplied by three 9 kW 28 V Auxilec starter/generators and two 23 Ah batteries. Heated bleed air anti-icing of wing leading-edges, intakes and centre engine duct; electrically heated windscreens. Eros (SFIM/Intertechnique) oxygen system.
AVIONICS: Comms: Honeywell Primus 2000 as core system.
Radar: Honeywell Primus 870 colour weather radar.
Flight: Dual autopilot Honeywell FMZ-2000 FMS with two AZ-840 micro air data systems and two Laseref III LINS; Rockwell Collins dual VIR-432 VOR/ILS marker receiver, dual ADF-462 and DME-442; Honeywell AA-300 radar altimeter and IC-800 autopilot; and Honeywell EGPWS.
Instrumentation: Honeywell Primus 2000 five-tube EFIS, comprising two MFDs, two PFDS and one EIED, each measuring 203 x 178 mm (8 x 7 in). Flight Dynamics HGS-2850 head-up guidance system optional.