US marketing name: SuperScooper
TYPE: Twin-turboprop amphibian.
PROGRAMME: Introduced as product follow-on to piston-engined Canadair CL-215; given new designation Canadair 415 in 1991 to distinguish new production turboprop model from CL-215T retrofit, but engineering designation retained and new-build turboprop versions are CL-215-6B11. Launched officially 16 October 1991 with firm orders from France and (August 1992) Quebec; first flight (C-GSCT) 6 December 1993, although preceded by initial GL-215T conversion (C-FASE), flown on 8 June 1989. Canadian certification 24 June 1994 in Restricted and Utility categories, FAA approval 14 October 1994 in Restricted category. RAI (Italy) approval 27 October 1994 in Restricted category. Fleet had achieved 50,000 flying hours and 190,000 scooping sorties by 31 March 2001. Final assembly relocated to North Bay, Ontario, in November 1998. Production suspended in October 2001 pending new orders. New designation Bombardier 415 adopted in February 2002.
CURRENT VERSIONS: Standard 415 and first production units are in firefighting configuration.
415MP: Multipurpose version incorporating FLIR, SLAR and nose-mounted search radar for missions such as search and rescue, coastal and border patrol and environmental monitoring, while retaining firefighting capability. First flight (C-GHVX; 55th aircraft, destined to become 415GR for Greece) 6 March 2002, preceding a 200-hour flight test programme.
415MP can be modified for maritime, SAR and special missions.
415GR: Ordered by Greece, January 1999; based on 415MP; increased weights; boat handling and cargo hoisting provisions. Two (plus an optional third) will be configured for combat search-and-rescue (C-SAR) role, for which, during 2000, SAAB Nyge Aero of Sweden was awarded a three-year contract to install MSS 5000 mission equipment including SLAR (each side), wing-mounted FLIR Systems SeaFLIR, nose-mounted Honeywell Primus WX 660 weather/search radar, digital cameras, autopilot and provision for Have Quick secure radios and rescue beacon receivers. The aircraft will also have an enlarged cargo door to facilitate deployment of an inflatable rescue boat. The Hellenic Air Force C-SAR aircraft will be based at Elefsis AB; delivery was due in May 2003.
CUSTOMERS: First French Canadair 415 delivered to CEV experimental unit 8 February 1995, but trials revealed need for modifications and acceptance delayed until 13 June 1995; deliveries completed June 1997. Ontario provincial government announced order for nine on 2 April 1998. Government of Malaysia expressed interest in acquiring two following demonstration flights in February 2002. Total 59 built by October 2001 production suspension; 60th registered in January 2002, but none further in that year.
COSTS: Approximately US$23 million in firefighting configuration (2000).
DESIGN FEATURES: Retains well-proven basic airframe of piston-engined CL-215 (thick wing with zero dihedral and 2o incidence; row of vortex generators on each wing outboard of fence; long stall strip inboard of starboard fence; leading-edge strakes and fences beside engine nacelles; water scoops behind planing step; anti-spray channels in planing bottom chine) but incorporates upgrading modifications and improvements including higher operating weights for increased firefighting productivity; pressure refuelling; wing endplates for lateral stability; finlets and tailplane/fin bullet to recover longitudinal and directional stability affected by relocated thrust line, increased power and new propellers; powered rudder, ailerons and elevators; new electrical system; new 'glass' cockpit with air conditioning; enlarged four-tank firefighting drop system.
FLYING CONTROLS: Conventional and power-assisted Hydraulically actuated ailerons, elevators and rudder, standard; manual reversion in event of hydraulic failure; geared tab in each aileron, spring tab in rudder and each elevator, plus trim tab in port aileron and port elevator. Hydraulically operated single-slotted flaps, each supported by four external hinges.
STRUCTURE: No-dihedral, no-twist high wing, of constant chord; one-piece structure with two conventional spars, extruded spanwise stringers and interspar ribs and aluminium alloy skins. All-metal, fail-safe, single-step boat-hull fuselage with numerous watertight compartments. Tail surfaces of aluminium alloy sheet and extrusions, with honeycomb panels on control surfaces.
LANDING GEAR: Hydraulically retractable tricycle type. Self-centring twin-wheel nose unit retracts rearward into hull and is fully enclosed by conformal doors. Nosewheel steering standard. Main gear legs retract into wells in sides of hull. Plate mounted on each main gear assembly encloses bottom of wheel well. Mainwheel tyres 15.00-16 (16 ply) tubeless, pressure 5.31 bar (77 lb/sq in); nosewheel tyres 6.50-10 (10 ply) tubed, pressure 6.55 bar (95 lb/sq in). Hydraulic disc brakes. Non-retractable stabilising floats, each carried near wingtip on pylon cantilevered from wing box structure, with breakaway provision.
POWER PLANT: Two 1,775 kW (2,380 shp) Pratt & Whitney Canada PW123AF turboprops, on damage-tolerant mounts capable of withstanding a breach of the compressor/turbine casing, each driving a Hamilton Sundstrand 14SF-19 four-blade constant-speed fully feathering reversible-pitch propeller. Two fuel tanks, each of eight identical flexible cells, in wing spar box, with total usable capacity of 5,796 litres (1,531 US gallons; 1,275 Imp gallons). Single-point pressure refuelling (rear fuselage, starboard side), plus gravity points in wing upper surface.
ACCOMMODATION: Normal crew of two side by side on flight deck, with dual controls. Additional station in maritime patrol/SAR versions for third cockpit member, mission specialist and two observers. For water bomber cabin installation, see Equipment paragraph. Combi layout offers cargo at front, full firefighting capability, plus 11 seats at rear. Other quick-change interiors available for utility/paratroop (up to 14 troop-type folding canvas seats in cabin) or other special missions according to customer's requirements. Flush doors to main cabin on port side of fuselage forward and aft of wings. Optional aft cargo door, height 1.33 m (4 ft 4½ in), width 1.46 m (4 ft 9½ in). Emergency exit on starboard side aft of wing trailing-edge. Crew emergency hatch in flight deck roof on starboard side. Mooring hatch in upper surface of nose. Provision for additional cabin windows.
SYSTEMS: Vapour cycle air conditioning system and combustion heater. Hydraulic system, pressure 207 bar (3,000 lb/sq in), utilises two engine-driven pumps (maximum flow rate 45.5 litres; 12.0 US gallons; 10.0 Imp gallons/min) to actuate nosewheel steering, landing gear, flaps, water drop doors, pickup probes, flight controls, main gear unlocking and wheel brakes. Hydraulic fluid (MIL-H-83282) in air/oil reservoir slightly pressurised by engine bleed air. Electrically driven third pump provides hydraulic power for emergency actuation of landing gear and brakes and closure of water doors. Electrical system includes two 800 VA 115 V 400 Hz static inverters, two 28 V 400 A DC engine-driven starter/generators and two 40 Ah Ni/Cd batteries. Pneumatic/electric intake de-icing system; airframe ice protection system optional.
AVIONICS: Dual Honeywell Primus 2 digital integrated VHF nav/com.
Comms: Global Wulfsberg VHF/UHF/AM/FM and Rockwell Collins HF radios with central control heads, ELT and dual transponders.
Radar: Search/weather radar optional.
Flight: Dual ADF, VOR/ILS, marker beacon receivers and single DME.
Instrumentation: Honeywell EDZ-605 EFIS with three-tube Integrated Instrument Display System for EADI and EHSI; dual Litef/Honeywell AHRS, dual air data computers, Honeywell radio altimeter.
EQUIPMENT (firefighter): Four integral water tanks in main fuselage compartment, near CG (combined capacity 6,137 litres; 1,621 US gallons; 1,350 Imp gallons), plus eight inward-facing seats in forward cabin. Tanks filled by two hydraulically actuated scoops aft of hull step, fillable also on ground by nose adaptor on each side of fuselage. Four independently openable water doors in hull bottom. Onboard foam concentrate reservoirs (capacity 680 kg; 1,500 lb) and mixing system. Improved drop pattern and drop door sequencing compared with CL-215. Optional spray kit can be coupled with firefighting tanks for large-scale spraying of oil dispersants and insecticides. In a typical firefighting mission, with a water source 6 n miles (11 km; 7 miles) from the fire, aircraft can remain on station for 3 hours, dropping 55,267 litres (14,600 US gallons; 12,157 Imp gallons)/h. Water tanks can be scoop-filled completely (ISA at S/L, zero wind) in 12 seconds over a water distance of 1,341 m (4,400 ft); partial water loads can be scooped on smaller bodies of water. Minimum safe water depth for scooping is only 1.40 m (4 ft 7 in).
EQUIPMENT (other versions): Stretcher kits, passenger or troop seats, cargo tiedowns, searchlight and other equipment according to mission and customer requirements. Bombardier 415 can be equipped with maritime surveillance radar and electro-optical sensors, precision navigation and communications equipment and autopilot.