TYPE: Basic jet trainer/light attack jet.
PROGRAMME: First-generation IA 63 Pampa initiated by Fuerza Aerea Argentina (FAA; Argentine Air Force) 1979,eventual configuration being selected over six other designs early 1980, with Dornier of Germany providing technical assistance (including manufacture of prototypes' wings and tailplanes); two static/fatigue test airframes and three flying prototypes built (first flight, by EX-01, 6 October 1984);
first flight of production Pampa October 1987; 14 of initial batch of 18 (including three prototypes) delivered to FAA (10 survivors currently serving I Escuadron of 4 Grupo de Caza at El Plumerillo, Mendoza) from 1988; expected follow-on order for 46 did not materialise, and Argentine Navy requirement for 12 long remained in abeyance, but one new aircraft (E-816) assembled from existing and new components, delivered to FAA on 28 September 1999.
New-generation' Pampa NG revealed late 1997 and offered to Argentine Air Force and Navy.
Resumption of production announced 29 June 2000 for a further batch of 12 Pampas in new AT-63 (with hyphen) configuration, deliveries then scheduled to begin in 2003 and end in June 2005; contract (2001) includes option for further 12. This reaffirmed in January 2001 to be part of five-year FAA support contract placed with LMAASA. US$230 million contract also includes upgrade of existing Pampas. Argentine Navy interest renewed in 2000; initial batch of eight in prospect. However, by early 2003, no contracts had been finalised because of national financial crisis; upgrade delayed and new production still not authorised.
Unofficial report of mid-2002 alleged Colombian interest in 24 Pampas.
CURRENT VERSIONS: IA63 Pampa: Standard Argentine Air Force version.
Naval version: Would have strengthened landing gear, uprated engine and some changed avionics.
Pampa 2000 International: No details.
Pampa NG A: Proposed advanced trainer with updated avionics. Essentially became AT-63 (initial version).
Pampa NG B: Proposed combat-capable version; uprated engine and avionics. Features to be incorporated in later upgrade of AT-63.
AT-63 : Attack/trainer. Announced 2001 as new standard version for Argentine Air Force and potential export. Two prototypes modified from existing IA 63s in 2001-02; first flight planned for November 2002, but delayed following funding problems of FAA. Initial version (Pampa Phase II) features new processor for DECU. Elbit avionics suite (MIL-STD-1553B databus, mission computer, RLG INS/GPS, integrated weapons system, liquid crystal MFD in each cockpit, and front cockpit HUD). Advanced version (Pampa Phase III) proposed for 2005 with structurally enhanced (+7/-3 g) wing, 18.9 kN (4.250 lb st) TFE731-40R engine, missionised avionics with enhanced tactical capabilities, nose-mounted laser range-finder, fin-mounted RWR, conformal chaff/flare dispensers, two additional hardpoints (total seven) for AAMs and strengthened landing gear for increased MTOW.
AT-63 version also proposed with Lockheed Martin AN/APG-67(V)4 multimode radar in response to Colombian interest; announced at FIDAE, Chile, April 2002 that Lockheed Martin Naval Electronics & Surveillance Systems selected to integrate APG-67 in Pampa. Also reported that Singapore planned to evaluate AT-63 in early 2003 as S.211 replacement.
Description applies to Phase II Pampa.
COSTS: US$8 million to US$9 million, including radar (estimated, 2002).
DESIGN FEATURES: Intended for cost-effective pilot training in mission management techniques, advanced fighter lead-in training and extended-range anti-drug patrol missions. High degree of commonality with the original IA 63 Pampa, providing a customised low life-cycle cost fleet. Fail-safe service life 8,000 hours.
Non-swept shoulder-mounted wings and anhedral tailplane, sweptback fin and rudder; single engine with twin lateral air intakes. Wing section Dornier DoA-7/-8 advanced transonic; leading-edge sweep 5° 24'; thickness/ chord ratio 14.5 per cent at root, 12.5 per cent at tip: anhedral 3°.
FLYING CONTROLS: Conventional hydraulically powered ailerons, rudder, all-moving tailplane, single-slotted Fowler flaps, and door-type airbrake, deployable at all speeds, on each side of upper rear fuselage; primary surfaces have Liebherr tandem actuators and electromechanical trim.
STRUCTURE: Conventional all-metal semi-monocoque/ stressed skin; two-spar wing box forms integral fuel tank. Modified fuselage nosecone, tailcone and fintip in AT-63.
LANDING GEAR: SHL (Israel) retractable tricycle type, with hydraulic extension/retraction and emergency free-fall extension. Oleo-pneumatic shock-absorbers. Single Messier-Bugatti wheel on each unit with Goodrich (main) or Continental (nose) low-pressure tyre; nosewheel offset 10 cm (3.9 in) to starboard. Tyre sizes 6.50-10 (10 ply) on mainwheels, 380x150 (4/6 ply) on nosewheel, with respective pressures of 6.55 bar (95 lb/sq in) and 4.00 bar (581b/sqin). Nosewheel retracts rearward, mainwheels inward into underside of engine air intake trunks. Messier- Bugatti mainwheel hydraulic disc brakes incorporate antiskid device; nosewheel steering (±47°). Gear designed for operation from unprepared surfaces.
POWER PLANT: One 15.57 kN (3,500 lb st) Honeywell TFE731-2C-2N turbofan installed in rear fuselage. Singlepoint pressure refuelling, plus gravity point in upper surface of each wing. Standard internal fuel capacity of 968 litres (255 US gallons; 213 Imp gallons) in integral wing tank of 550 litres (145 US gallons; 121 Imp gallons) and 418 litre (110 US gallon; 92.0 Imp gallon) flexible fuselage tank with a negative g chamber permitting up to 10 seconds of inverted flight. Additional 415 litres (109 US gallons; 91.0 Imp gallons) can be carried in auxiliary tanks inside outer wing panels, to give a maximum internal capacity of 1,383 litres (364 US gallons; 304 Imp gallons). Provision on centre underwing stations for two external drop tanks, each of 317 litres (83.7 US gallons; 69.7 Imp gallons). Total fuel capacity 2,017 litres (533 US gallons; 444 Imp gallons).
ACCOMMODATION: Tandem, rear seat elevated, on UPC (Stencel) S-III-S3IA63 zero/zero ejection seats. Ejection procedure can be preselected for separate single ejections, or for both seats to be fired from front or rear cockpit. HOTAS operation; dual controls standard. One-piece wraparound windscreen. One-piece canopy, with internal screen, is hinged at rear and opens upward. Entire accommodation pressurised and air conditioned.
SYSTEMS: Honeywell environmental control system, maximum differential 0.30 bar (4.4 lb/sq in), supplied by high- or low-pressure engine bleed air, provides a 1,980 m (6,500 ft) cockpit environment up to flight level 5,730 m (18,800 ft) and also provides ram air for negative g system and canopy seal. Oxygen system supplied by 10 litre (0.35 cu ft) lox converter. Engine air intakes anti-iced by engine bleed air.
Two independent hydraulic systems, each at pressure of 207 bar (3,000 lb/sq in), each supplied by engine-driven pump. Each system incorporates a bootstrap reservoir pressurised at 4 bar (58 lb/sq in). No.l system, with flow rate of 16 litres (4.2 US gallons; 3.5 Imp gallons)/min, actuates primary flight controls, airbrakes, landing gear and wheel brakes No. 2 system, with flow rate of 8 litres (2.1 US gallons; 1.75 Imp gallons)/min, actuates primary flight controls, wing flaps, emergency and parking brakes, and nosewheel steering. Honeywell ram air turbine provides emergency hydraulic power for No. 2 system if engine shuts down in flight and pressure in this system drops below minimum.
Electrical system (28 V DC) supplied by Lear Siegler 400 A 11.5 kW engine-driven starter/generator; secondary supply (115/26 V AC power at 400 Hz) from two Flite- Tronics 450 VA static inverters and two SAFT 27 Ah sealed lead batteries. Thirty minutes of emergency electrical power available in case of in-flight engine shutdown.
AVIONICS: Comms: Two VHF/UHF transceivers and direction-finder, intercom and IFF or ATC transponder.
Radar: Lockheed Martin AN/APG-67(V)4 multimode radar optional (not fitted in Argentine Air Force aircraft).
Flight: VOR/ILS with marker beacon receiver; DME or Tacan optional; autonomous ESIS/air data computer, HSI, ADF, ADI; Honey well HG 764 laser INS with GPS; radar altimeter; air data computer.
Instrumentation: Single 127 mm (5 in) HUD (multimode: UFCP, PDU, PSVS and camera); colour HUD camera/airborne videotape recorder; video repeater; 12.7 x 17.8 cm ( 5 x 7 in) liquid crystal MFD in each cockpit for Argentine Air Force; second, similar MFD in each cockpit (for EICAS) for export version; Multirole central computer and MIL-STD-1553B digital databus.
Mission: New integrated weapon delivery system. Mission computer/symbol generator/integrated comms; weapon management system/data transfer unit; steerable laser ring finder optional: radar warning receiver optional; chaff/flare dispenser.
ARMAMENT: Five stations for external stores, stressed for 440 kg (970 lb) on centre fuselage and each inboard underwing station, 290 kg (639 lb) on each outboard underwing station, all at +5.5/—2 g. Phase III aircraft will have further pair of pylons further outboard, each rated at 170 kg (375 lb), for total of seven, plus uprated inboard wing pylons. Several external stores configurations including Mk 81 and Mk 82 bombs; LAU-32, LAU-51 and LAU-10 rocket pods; 30 mm gun pod (centreline), twin machine gun pods; and CBLS 200 practice bomb carriers.
|DIMENSIONS, EXTERNAL :|
|Wing span||9.69 m (31 ft 9½ in)|
|Wing aspect ratio||6.0|
|Length overall||10.93 m (35 ft 10¼ in)|
|Height overall||4.29 m (14 ft 1 in)|
|Tailplane span||4.58 m ( 1 5 ft 0 ¼ in)|
|Wheel track||2.66 m (8 ft 8¾ in)|
|Wheelbase||4.42 m (14 ft 6 in)|
|Wings, gross||15.63 m² (168.3 sq ft)|
|Ailerons (total)||0.89 m² (9.58 sq ft)|
|Trailing-edge flaps (total)||2.93 m² (31.54 sq ft)|
|Fin||1.86 m² (20.02 sq ft)|
|Rudder||0.655 m² (7.05 sq ft)|
|Tailplane||4.35 m² (46.87 sq ft)|
|WEIGHTS AND LOADINGS (estimated):|
|Weight empty||2,820 kg (6,217 lb)|
|Max fuel weight:|
|fuselage||327 kg (721 lb)|
|wings, internal inboard||430 kg (948 lb)|
|wings, internal outboard||325 kg (717 lb)|
|underwing drop tanks||496 kg (1,093 lb)|
|Max external stores load||1,900 kg (4,189 lb)|
|Max T-O weight||5,000 kg (11,023 lb)|
|Max wing loading||319.9 kg/m² (65.52 lb/sq ft)|
|Max power loading||321 kg/kN (3.15 lb/lb st)|
|PERFORMANCE (estimated at 3,764 kg; 8,300 lb clean T-0 weight with normal internal fuel except where indicated):|
|Max level speed at 7,985 m (25,900 ft)||440 kt (814 km/h; 506 mph)|
|Max operating speed ( VMO )||M0.8|
|Econ cruising speed at 9,145 m (30,000 ft)||350 kt (648 km/h; 402 mph)|
|Stalling speed at S/L, 50% normal internal fuel:|
|flaps up||104 kt (193 km/h; 120 mph)|
|flaps down||82 kt (152 km/h; 95 mph)|
|Max rate of climb at S/L||1,560 m (5,118 ft)/min|
|Service ceiling||12,900 m (42,320 ft)|
|T-O run||430 m (1,410 ft)|
|Landing run at 3,497 kg (7,710 lb)||460 m (1,510 ft)|
|Radius of action: air-to-air (hi-hi), T-O weight of 4,300 kg (9,480 lb) with 254 kg (560 lb) external load, 5 min allowance for dogfight, normal internal fuel, 30 min reserves||380 n miles (703 km, 437 miles)|
|air-to-ground (hi-lo-lo-hi), 30 n mile dash out/in, T-O weight of 5.000 kg (11.023 lb) with 1.000 kg (2,205 lb) external load, max internal fuel, 5 min allowance for weapon delivery, plus 30 min reserves||236 n miles (127 km, 205 miles)|
|Ferry range||9,145 m (30,000 ft), ISA with 15 min|
|reserves||1,140 n miles (2,111 km; 1,311 miles)|